Table 1 Overview of needs (original and additional) and the respective Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs)

From: Towards a Reformulated Theory Underlying Schema Therapy: Position Paper of an International Workgroup

Needs Respective EMSs
Original Original
Safety & nurturance Emotional deprivation
  Mistrust/abuse
  Abandonment
  Social isolation
  Defectiveness/shame
Autonomy, competence, & identity Dependence/incompetence
  Failure
  Vulnerability to harm & illness
  Enmeshment
Freedom to express needs, opinions, & emotions Subjugation
  Self-sacrifice
  Approval seeking
Spontaneity & play Negativity/pessimism
  Emotional inhibition
  Unrelenting standards
  Punitiveness
Realistic limits & self-control Entitlement/grandiosity
  Insufficient self-control/self-discipline
Additional Additional
Self-coherence Lack of a coherent identity
Lack of a meaningful world
Fairness Unfairness