Although early maladaptive schemas (EMS) have been strongly associated with psychopathology in adults, this association is less clear in young people since schemas are still emerging. This systematic review examines the relationship between EMS and psychopathology in young people to assess the degree to which EMS discriminate between psychopathologies, consistent with the cognitive content specificity hypothesis.
PsycINFO, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were systematically searched.
Fifty-eight studies were identified for inclusion, with 24,005 participants across all studies. We found evidence of the relationship between EMS and psychopathology in young people. EMS were found to discriminate between depression, anxiety, eating pathology, borderline symptomology, and externalizing behaviors.
Findings are discussed in the context of treatment approaches for psychopathology in youth, specifically through an increased understanding of the role of EMS in this developmental period. We also suggest future research directions and discuss the methodological limitations of the studies reviewed, including a bias towards community samples, and a lack of consistency in EMS measures. These findings suggest that EMS may be an important area to target when treating youth presenting with psychological distress.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abdolahzadeh Rafi, M., Adibsereshki, N., & Hasanzadeh Aval, M. (2017). The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in relationships of emotional maltreatment and emotional disorders. European Journal of Mental Health,12, 104–115. https://doi.org/10.5708/EJMH.12.2017.1.7.
Alba, J., & Calvete, E. (2019). Bidirectional relationships between stress, depressive symptoms, and cognitive vulnerabilities in adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,38, 87–112. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2019.38.2.87.
Alba, J., Calvete, E., Wante, L., Van Beveren, M., & Braet, C. (2018). Early maladaptive schemas as moderators of the association between bullying victimization and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research,42, 24–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-017-9874-5.
Bakhshi Bojed, F., & Nikmanesh, Z. (2013). Role of early maladaptive schemas on addiction potential in youth. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction,2, 72–76. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.10148.
Baranoff, J., Oei, T. P. S., Ho Cho, S., & Kwon, S.-M. (2006). Factor structure and internal consistency of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Korean and Australian samples. Journal of Affective Disorders,93, 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2006.03.003.
Barazandeh, H., Kissane, D. W., Saeedi, N., & Gordon, M. (2016). A systematic review of the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and borderline personality disorder/traits. Personality and Individual Differences,94, 130–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.021.
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.
Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Beck, A. T. (1990). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
Bosmans, G., Braet, C., & Van Vlierberghe, L. (2010). Attachment and symptoms of psychopathology: Early maladaptive schemas as a cognitive link? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,17, 374–385. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.667.
Calvete, E. (2013). Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: Contributions to development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect,38, 735–746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.10.014.
Calvete, E., & Connor-Smith, J. K. (2005). Automatic thoughts and psychological symptoms: A cross-cultural comparison of American and Spanish students. Cognitive Therapy & Research,29, 201–2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-3165-2.
Calvete, E., Estevez, A., Lopez de Arroyabe, E., & Ruiz, P. (2005). The schema questionnaire-short form: Structure and relationship with automatic thoughts and symptoms of affective disorders. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,21, 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5718.104.22.168.
Calvete, E., Fernandez-Gonzalez, L., Gonzalez-Cabrera, J. M., & Gamez-Guadix, M. (2018a). Continued bullying victimization in adolescents: Maladaptive schemas as a mediational mechanism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,47, 650–660. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0677-5.
Calvete, E., Fernández-González, L., Orue, I., & Little, T. D. (2018b). Exposure to family violence and dating violence perpetration in adolescents: Potential cognitive and emotional mechanisms. Psychology of Violence,8, 67–75. https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000076.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & González-Diez, Z. (2013a). An examination of the structure and stability of early maladaptive schemas by means of the Young Schema Questionnaire-3. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,29, 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000158.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Hankin, B. L. (2013b). Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: The mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,27, 278–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2013.02.011.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Hankin, B. L. (2013c). Transactional relationships among cognitive vulnerabilities, stressors, and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,41, 399–410. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9691-y.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Hankin, B. L. (2015). A longitudinal test of the vulnerability-stress model with early maladaptive schemas for depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,37, 85–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9438-x.
Camara, M., & Calvete, E. (2012). Early maladaptive schemas as moderators of the impact of stressful events on anxiety and depression in university students. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment,34, 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-011-9261-6.
Cecero, J. J., Nelson, J. D., & Gillie, J. M. (2004). Tools and tenets of schema therapy: Toward the construct validity of the early maladaptive schema questionnaire-research version (EMSQ-R). Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,11, 344–357. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.401.
Cooper, M. J., Rose, K. S., & Turner, H. (2005). Core beliefs and the presence or absence of eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders,38, 60–64. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20157.
Crawford, E., & O'Dougherty Wright, M. (2007). The impact of childhood psychological maltreatment on interpersonal schemas and subsequent experiences of relationship aggression. Journal of Emotional Abuse,7, 93–116. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v07n02_06.
Cui, L., Lin, W., & Oei, T. P. S. (2011). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese undergraduate students. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction,9, 645–655. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-010-9283-4.
Damiano, S. R., Reece, J., Reid, S., Atkins, L., & Patton, G. (2015). Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment. Eating Behaviors,16, 64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.10.016.
DiBartoli, P. M., Albano, A. M., Barlow, D. H., & Heimberg, R. G. (1998). Cross-informant agreement in the assessment of social phobia in youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,26, 631–655. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022624318795.
Dozois, D. J. A., Eichstedt, J. A., Collins, K. A., Phoenix, E., & Harris, K. (2012). Core beliefs, self-perception, and cognitive organization in depressed adolescents. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy,5, 99–112. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.1.99.
Dozois, D. J. A., Martin, R. A., & Faulkner, B. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas, styles of humor and aggression. Humor,26, 97–116. https://doi.org/10.1515/humor-2013-0006.
Esmaeilian, N., Dehghani, M., Koster, E. H. W., & Hoorelbeke, K. (2019). Early maladaptive schemas and borderline personality disorder features in a nonclinical sample: A network analysis. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy,26, 388–398. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2360.
Fairburn, C. G., & Cooper, Z. (2007). Thinking afresh about the classification of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders,40, S107–S110. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20460.
Frías, Á., Navarro, S., Palma, C., Farriols, N., Aliaga, F., Salvador, A., et al. (2018). Early maladaptive schemas associated with dimensional and categorical psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy,25, e30–e41. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2123.
Friedmann, J. S., Lumley, M. N., & Lerman, B. (2016). Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy,45, 32–48. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2015.1100212.
Gay, L. E., Harding, H. G., Jackson, J. L., Burns, E. E., & Baker, B. D. (2013). Attachment style and early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and intimate partner violence. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma,22, 408–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2013.775982.
Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., Dirksen, C., van Asselt, T., . . . Arntz, A. (2006). Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Randomized trial of schema-focused therapy vs transference-focused psychotherapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 649–658. Retrieved from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/209673.
Gong, J., & Chan, R. C. K. (2018). Early maladaptive schemas as mediators between childhood maltreatment and later psychological distress among Chinese college students. Psychiatry Research,259, 493–500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.11.019.
González-Díez, Z., Calvete, E., Riskind, J. H., & Orue, I. (2015). Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: A 12-month prospective study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,30, 59–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.12.014.
Güner, O. (2017). Psychometric properties and normative values of early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents (SQS). Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy,24, 534–554. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2049.
Halvorsen, M., Wang, C. E., Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K. (2010). Dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas as predictors of depression: A 9-year follow-up study. Cognitive Therapy & Research,34, 368–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9259-5.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,107, 128–140. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.107.1.128.
Harding, H. G., Burns, E. E., & Jackson, J. L. (2012). Identification of child sexual abuse survivor subgroups based on early maladaptive schemas: Implications for understanding differences in posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Cognitive Therapy and Research,36, 560–575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9385-8.
Hawke, L. D., & Provencher, M. D. (2011). Schema theory and schema therapy in mood and anxiety disorders: A review. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly,25, 257–276. https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8322.214.171.1247.
Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L. M., Wang, C. E., Holthe, H., Haugum, J. A., et al. (2005). The structure of maladaptive schemas: A confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric evaluation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy & Research,29, 627–644. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-9630-0.
Hulbert, C. A., Jennings, T. C., Jackson, H. J., & Chanen, A. M. (2011). Attachment style and schema as predictors of social functioning in youth with borderline features. Personality and Mental Health,5, 209–221. https://doi.org/10.1002/pmh.169.
Kellogg, S. H., & Young, J. E. (2006). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology,62, 445–458. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20240.
Khorramdel, K., Abolghasemi, A., Rakhshani, T., Nikdast, S. P., & Rajabi, S. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas as predictor of adolescents runaway. Archives of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy,15, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.12740/APP/20629.
Klibert, J., Lamis, D. A., Naufel, K., Yancey, C. T., & Lohr, S. (2015). Associations between perfectionism and generalized anxiety: Examining cognitive schemas and gender. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy,33, 160–178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-015-0208-9.
Kmet, L., Lee, R., & Cook, L. (2001). Standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields. Edmonton: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research (AHFMR).
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Thompson, K., Selwyn, C., Finnegan, H., & Misra, T. (2017). Maladaptive schemas mediate poor parental attachment and suicidality in college students. Death Studies,41, 337–344. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2017.1280714.
Lawrence, K., Allen, J., & Chanen, A. (2011). A study of maladaptive schemas and borderline personality disorder in young people. Cognitive Therapy & Research,35, 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9292-4.
Lewis, S. P., Lumley, M. N., & Grunberg, P. H. (2015). Early maladaptive schemas and non-suicidal self-injury among young adults: A preliminary investigation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly,28, 386–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/09515070.2015.1074887.
Lumley, M. N., & Harkness, K. L. (2007). Specificity in the relations among childhood adversity, early maladaptive schemas and symptom profiles in adolescent depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research,31, 639–657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9100-3.
Masley, S. A., Gillanders, D. T., Simpson, S. G., & Taylor, M. A. (2012). A systematic review of the evidence base for schema therapy. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy,41, 185–202. https://doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2011.614274.
Mateos-Pérez, E., Calvete, E., & Hankin, B. L. (2015). Negative inferences as mediators of the predictive association between early maladaptive schemas and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,34, 259–276. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2015.34.3.259.
Meyer, C., & Gillings, K. (2004). Parental bonding and bulimic psychopathology: The mediating role of mistrust/abuse beliefs. International Journal of Eating Disorders,35, 229–233. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.10236.
Meyer, C., Leung, N., Feary, R., & Mann, B. (2001). Core beliefs and bulimic symptomatology in non-eating-disordered women: The mediating role of borderline characteristics. International Journal of Eating Disorders,30, 434–440. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.1104.
Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., … Group, P.-P. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-4-1.
Muris, P. (2006). Maladapative schemas in non-clinical adolescents: Relations to perceived parental rearing behaviours, big five personality factors and psychopathological symptoms. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,13, 405–413. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.506.
O'Dougherty Wright, M., Crawford, E., & Del Castillo, D. (2009). Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: The mediating role of maladaptive schemas. Child Abuse & Neglect,33, 59–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.007.
Oei, T. P. S., & Baranoff, J. (2007). Young Schema Questionnaire: Review of psychometric and measurement issues. Australian Journal of Psychology,59, 78–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049530601148397.
Orue, I., Calvete, E., & Padilla, P. (2014). Brooding rumination as a mediator in the relation between early maladaptive schemas and symptoms of depression and social anxiety in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence,37, 1281–1291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.09.004.
Petrocelli, J. V., Glaser, B. A., Calhoun, G. B., & Campbell, L. F. (2001). Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes. Journal of Personality Disorders,15, 546–559. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.15.6.546.19189.
Reeves, M., & Taylor, J. (2007). Specific relationships between core beliefs and personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy,14, 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.519.
Richardson, G. (2005). Early maladaptive schemas in a sample of British adolescent sexual abusers: implications for therapy. Journal of Sexual Aggression,11, 259–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/13552600500402419.
Rickwood, D., White, A., & Eckersley, R. (2007). Overview of current trends in mental health problems for Australia's youth and adolescents. Clinical Psychologist,11, 72–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/13284200701870970.
Rijkeboer, M. M., & de Boo, G. M. (2010). Early maladaptive schemas in children: Development and validation of the schema inventory for children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,41, 102–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.11.001.
Roelofs, J., Lee, C., Ruijten, T., & Lobbestael, J. (2011). The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relation between quality of attachment relationships and symptoms of depression in adolescents. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy,39, 471–479. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465811000117.
Roelofs, J., Onckels, L., & Muris, P. (2013). Attachment quality and psychopathological symptoms in clinically referred adolescents: The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas. Journal of Child and Family Studies,22, 377–385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9589-x.
Roemmele, M., & Messman-Moore, T. L. (2011). Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse,20, 264–283. https://doi.org/10.1080/10538712.2011.575445.
Sajadi, S. F., Arshadi, N., Zargar, Y., Mehrabizade Honarmand, M., & Hajjari, Z. (2015). Borderline personality features in students: The predicting role of schema, emotion regulation, dissociative experience and suicidal ideation. International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction,4, e20021. https://doi.org/10.5812/ijhrba.20021v2.
Santos, L., Vagos, P., & Rijo, D. (2018). Dimensionality and measurement invariance of a brief form of the Young Schema Questionnaire for Adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies,27, 2100–2111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1050-3.
Saritaş-Atalar, D., & Gencoz, T. (2015). The mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relationship between maternal rejection and psychological problems. Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 26, 40–47. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25742036.
Saritaş, D., & Gençöz, T. (2011). Psychometric properties of "Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3" in a Turkish adolescent sample. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies,11, 83–96.
Schniering, C. A., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). The relationship between automatic thoughts and negative emotions in children and adolescents: A test of the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,113, 464–470. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.113.3.464.
Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L., & Anderson, S. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas among young adult male substance abusers: A comparison with a non-clinical group. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,44, 522–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2012.12.001.
Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L., & Anderson, S. (2014). Differences in early maladaptive schemas between a sample of young adult female substance abusers and a non-clinical comparison group. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,21, 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1803.
Simons, R. M., Sistad, R. E., Simons, J. S., & Hansen, J. (2018). The role of distress tolerance in the relationship between cognitive schemas and alcohol problems among college students. Addictive Behaviors,78, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.10.020.
Stallard, P. (2007). Early maladaptive schemas in children: Stability and differences between a community and a clinic referred sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy,14, 10–18. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.511.
Turner, H. M., Rose, K. S., & Cooper, M. J. (2005a). Parental bonding and eating disorder symptoms in adolescents: The meditating role of core beliefs. Eating Behaviors,6, 113–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2004.08.010.
Turner, H. M., Rose, K. S., & Cooper, M. J. (2005b). Schema and parental bonding in overweight and nonoverweight female adolescents. International Journal of Obesity,29, 381–387. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802915.
Van Vlierberghe, L., & Braet, C. (2007). Dysfunctional schemas and psychopathology in referred obese adolescents. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,14, 342–351. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.546.
Van Vlierberghe, L., Braet, C., Bosmans, G., Rosseel, Y., & Bogels, S. (2010). Maladaptive schemas and psychopathology in adolescence: On the utility of Young's schema theory in youth. Cognitive Therapy Research,34, 316–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9283-5.
Van Vlierberghe, L., Braet, C., & Goossens, L. (2009). Dysfunctional schemas and eating pathology in overweight youth: A case-control study. International Journal of Eating Disorders,42, 437–442. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20638.
van Wijk-Herbrink, M. F., Bernstein, D. P., Broers, N. J., Roelofs, J., Rijkeboer, M. M., & Arntz, A. (2018). Internalizing and externalizing behaviors share a common predictor: The effects of early maladaptive schemas are mediated by coping responses and schema modes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,46, 907–920. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0386-2.
Yan, Y. L., Wang, J. P., Yu, W., He, L., & Oei, T. P. S. (2018). Young Schema Questionnaire: Factor structure and specificity in relation to anxiety in Chinese adolescents. Psychiatry Investigation,15, 41–48. https://doi.org/10.4306/pi.2018.15.1.41.
Yiğit, İ., Kılıç, H., Guzey Yiğit, M., & Çelik, C. (2018). Emotional and physical maltreatment, early maladaptive schemas, and internalizing disorders in adolescents: A multi-group path model of clinical and non-clinical samples. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-0068-4.
Young, J. E. (1990). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
Young, J. E. (1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach (rev. ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resources Press.
Young, J. E. (2006). Young Schema Questionnaire-S3. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center.
Young, J. E., & Brown, G. K. (1990). Young Schema Questionnaire-LF. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center of New York.
Young, J. E., & Brown, G. K. (1994). Young Schema Questionnaire-SF. New York: Cognitive Therapy Center.
Young, J. E., & Brown, G. K. (2003). Young Schema Questionnaire-L3. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange.
Young, J. E., & Brown, G. K. (2005). Young Schema Questionnaire: Short Form, Version 3. New York: Schema Therapy Institute.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.
Yu, M., Xu, W., Xie, Q., Zhu, Y., Chasson, G. S., & Wang, J. (2017). Automatic thoughts as a predictor of internalizing and externalizing problems in Chinese adolescents: A test of the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis with age effects. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology,58, 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12373.
Zeigler-Hill, V., Green, B. A., Arnau, R. C., Sisemore, T. B., & Myers, E. M. (2011). Trouble ahead, trouble behind: Narcissism and early maladaptive schemas. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry,42, 96–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.07.004.
Thanks to Phil Kavanagh, Peter Chamberlain (deceased), Anna Brichacek and Grahame Boulton, who provided assistance on this project.
No funding was provided.
Conflict of Interest
Annemarie Nicol, Anita S. Mak, Kristen Murray, Iain Walker, and Dean Buckmaster declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights Statements
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Nicol, A., Mak, A.S., Murray, K. et al. The Relationships Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Youth Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Cogn Ther Res 44, 715–751 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-020-10092-6
- Early maladaptive schemas
- Youth mental health