Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 981–995 | Cite as

Self Appraisals of Internal States and Risk of Analogue Bipolar Symptoms in Student Samples: Evidence from Standardised Behavioural Observations and a Diary Study

  • Alyson L. Dodd
  • Warren Mansell
  • Rosie A. Beck
  • Sara J. Tai
Original Article


An integrative cognitive model proposed that individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder (BD) assign extreme personal meaning to internal states. This research investigated the utility of the Hypomanic Attitudes and Positive Predictions Inventory as a cognitive risk measure for BD. Study 1 (N = 64; mean age 21.8 years, 42 female) explored whether students at cognitive risk had more extreme changes in mood and both self-reported and observer-rated bipolar-relevant symptoms during an interview task following a mood induction. The risk group did not respond differentially to the mood induction, but they spoke faster and dominated the conversation more during the interview task, self-reported greater activation, depression and negative affect, and scored higher on hypomanic personality, reward sensitivity, and dysfunctional attitudes. When controlling for other established cognitive measures, activation was still higher in the cognitive risk group at trend, and depression and negative affect were significantly higher. Activation, depression, and negative affect were still significantly higher in the cognitive risk group when controlling for reward sensitivity. Study 2 (N = 30; mean age 19.93 years, 21 female) complemented the experimental study with a 7 days diary study of everyday mood and behaviour. The risk group reported higher negative affect and bipolar-relevant symptoms. These results are consistent with the role of extreme appraisals of internal state in vulnerability to BD.


Mood induction Bipolar disorder Appraisals Hypomania Depression Hypomanic personality 



This work was undertaken at the University of Manchester, UK, and forms part of the first author’s PhD thesis. The research was funded by the School of Psychological Sciences and Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, UK. Warren Mansell is supported by the ESRC Emotion Regulation of Others and Self (EROS) Research Grant. Thank you to Heinz Walter Krohne.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alyson L. Dodd
    • 1
  • Warren Mansell
    • 2
  • Rosie A. Beck
    • 3
  • Sara J. Tai
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Health Research, Spectrum Centre for Mental Health ResearchLancaster UniversityLancasterUK
  2. 2.School of Psychological SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  3. 3.Department of Clinical PsychologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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