Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 290–299 | Cite as

A Prospective Study of Brooding and Reflection as Moderators of the Relationship between Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

  • Stephanie Cox
  • Kristyn Funasaki
  • Lauren Smith
  • Amy H. Mezulis
Original Article

Abstract

This study examined rumination as a moderator of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescents using a multi-wave prospective design. Stressors were analyzed by domain (independent/dependent and interpersonal/noninterpersonal) and both brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined as moderators. At the baseline assessment, 111 adolescents (ages 14–19) reported rumination and depressive symptoms. Youth were subsequently asked to complete a weekly diary assessment for 8 consecutive weeks, and again at 12 weeks, during which stressors and depressive symptoms were reported. Results indicated that brooding, but not reflection, moderated the relationship between stress and depression, for nearly all domains of stress. All results were in the expected direction, suggesting that the greater tendency to brood exacerbates the effects of stress on depression, whereas the greater tendency to reflect does not.

Keywords

Depression Adolescence Stress Rumination Brooding Reflection 

References

  1. Abela, J., Brozina, K., & Haigh, E. (2002). An examination of the response styles theory of depression in third- and seventh-grade children: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology: An Official Publication of the International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 30(5), 515–527. doi: 10.1023/A:1019873015594.Google Scholar
  2. Abela, J., & Hankin, B. (2008). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In J. Abela & B. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 35–78). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Abela, J., Parkinson, C., Stolow, D., & Starrs, C. (2009). A test of the integration of the hopelessness and response styles theories of depression in middle adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 354–364. doi: 10.1080/15374410902851630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Abela, J., Vanderbilt, E., & Rochon, A. (2004). A test of the integration of the response styles and social support theories of depression in third and seventh grade children. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 23, 653–674. doi: 10.1521/jscp.23.5.653.50752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armey, M. F., Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., et al. (2009). Brooding and pondering: Isolating the active ingredients of depressive rumination with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Assessment, 16, 315–327. doi: 10.1177/1073191109340388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagby, R., & Parker, J. (2001). Relation of rumination and distraction with neuroticism and extraversion in a sample of patients with major depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 91–102. doi: 10.1023/A:1026430900363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnett, P., & Gotlib, I. (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression: Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 97–126. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.104.1.97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumberg, S., & Izard, C. (1986). Discriminating patterns of emotions in 10- and 11-yr-old children’s anxiety and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 852–857. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.4.852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Broderick, P. (1998). Early adolescent gender differences in the use of ruminative and distracting coping strategies. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 18, 173–191. doi: 10.1177/0272431698018002003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broderick, P., & Korteland, C. (2004). A prospective study of rumination and depression in early adolescence. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9, 383–394. doi: 10.1177/1359104504043920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burwell, R., & Shirk, S. (2007). Subtypes of rumination in adolescence: Associations between brooding, reflection, depressive symptoms, and coping. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 56–65. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3601_6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ciesla, J., & Roberts, J. (2002). Self-directed thought and response to treatment for depression: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16, 435–453. doi: 10.1891/jcop.16.4.435.52528.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, L., Burt, C., & Bjorck, J. (1987). Life stress and adjustment: Effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Developmental Psychology, 23, 583–592. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.23.4.583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Compas, B., Davis, G., Forsythe, C., & Wagner, B. (1987). Assessment of major and daily stressful events during adolescence: The adolescent perceived events scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 534–541. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.55.4.534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davey, C., Yücel, M., & Allen, N. (2008). The emergence of depression in adolescence: Development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 1–19. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.04.016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fresco, D., Frankel, A., Mennin, D., Turk, C., & Heimberg, R. (2002). Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: The relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 179–188. doi: 10.1023/A:1014517718949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ge, X., Conger, R., & Elder, G. (2001). Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology, 37, 404–417. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.37.3.404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hammen, C. (1991). Generation of stress in the course of unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 555–561. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hammen, C. (1992). Life events and depression: The plot thickens. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 179–193. doi: 10.1007/BF00940835.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hammen, C. (2009). Adolescent depression: Stressful interpersonal contexts and risk for recurrence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 200–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hammen, C., & Compas, B. E. (1994). Unmasking unmasked depression in children and adolescents: The problem of comorbidity. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 585–603. doi: 10.1016/0272-7358(94)90018-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hankin, B. L. (2008). Rumination and depression in adolescence: Investigating symptom specificity in a multiwave prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 701–713. doi: 10.1080/15374410802359627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hankin, B., Abramson, L., Moffitt, T., Silva, P., McGee, R., & Angell, K. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10 year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 128–140. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.107.1.128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hong, W., Abela, J. Z., Cohen, J. R., Sheshko, D. M., Shi, X., Hamel, A., et al. (2010). Rumination as a vulnerability factor to depression in adolescents in mainland China: Lifetime history of clinically significant depressive episodes. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39, 849–857. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2010.517159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hyde, J., Mezulis, A., & Abramson, L. (2008). The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological Review, 115, 291–313. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Joormann, J., Dkane, M., & Gotlib, I. (2006). Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases. Behavior Therapy, 37, 269–280. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.01.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jose, P., & Brown, I. (2008). When does the gender difference in rumination begin? Gender and age differences in the use of rumination by adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 180–192. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9166-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kendler, K., Thornton, L., & Prescott, C. (2001). Gender differences in the rates of exposure to stressful life events and sensitivity to their depressogenic effects. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 587–593. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.4.587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kovacs, M. (1981). Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatrica: International Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 305–315.Google Scholar
  30. Kovacs, M. (1992). The children’s depression inventory (CDI). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 21, 995–998.Google Scholar
  31. Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., de Wilde, E., Dijkstra, A., Gebhardt, W., Maes, S., et al. (2003). Negative life events and depressive symptoms in late adolescence: Bonding and cognitive coping as vulnerability factors? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32, 185–193. doi: 10.1023/A:1022543419747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., & Cook, W. (2006). Rumination in adolescents at risk for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 96, 39–47. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.05.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lambert, K. (2006). Rising rates of depression in today’s society: Consideration of the roles of effort-based rewards and enhanced resilience in day-to-day functioning. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 497–510. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.09.002s.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Larson, R., & Asmussen, L. (1991). Anger, worry, and hurt in early adolescence: An enlarging world of negative emotions. In M. E. Colten & S. Gore (Eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences (pp. 21–41). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  35. Lopez, C. M., Driscoll, K. A., & Kistner, J. A. (2009). Sex differences and response styles: Subtypes of rumination and associations with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38, 27–35. doi: 10.1080/15374410802575412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lyubomirsky, S., & Tkach, C. (2003). The consequences of dysphoric rumination. In C. Papageorgiou & A. Wells (Eds.), Rumination: Nature, theory, and treatment of negative thinking in depression (pp. 21–41). Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 638–662. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.4.638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Muris, P., Fokke, M., & Kwik, D. (2009). The ruminative response style in adolescents: An examination of its specific link to symptoms of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 21–32. doi: 10.1007/s10608-007-9120-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.4.569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Girgus, J. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 424–443. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.61.1.115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400–424. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Papadakis, A. A., Prince, R. P., Jones, N. P., & Strauman, T. J. (2006). Self-regulation, rumination, and vulnerability to depression in adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 815–829. doi: 10.1017/S0954579406060408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pine, D., Cohen, P., Johnson, J., & Brook, J. (2002). Adolescent life events as predictors of adult depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 68, 49–57. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00331-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Raudenbusch, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis (2nd ed.). CA, Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  46. Rizzo, C. J., Daley, S. E., & Gunderson, B. H. (2006). Interpersonal sensitivity, romantic stress, and the prediction of depression: A study of inner-city, minority adolescent girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 469–478. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9047-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roberts, J., Gilboa, E., & Gotlib, I. (1998). Ruminative response style and vulnerability to episodes of dysphoria: Gender, neuroticism, and episode duration. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 401–423. doi: 10.1023/A:1018713313894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rude, S., Maestas, K., & Neff, K. (2007). Paying attention to distress: What’s wrong with rumination? Cognition and Emotion, 21, 843–864. doi: 10.1080/02699930601056732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rudolph, K. (2002). Gender differences in emotional responses to interpersonal stress during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 30, 3–13. doi: 10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00383-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rudolph, K., & Hammen, C. (1999). Age and gender as determinants of stress exposure, generation, and reactions in youngsters: A transactional perspective. Child Development, 70, 660–677. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00048.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rudolph, K., Hammen, C., Burge, D., Lindberg, N., Herzberg, D., & Daley, S. (2000). Toward an interpersonal life-stress model of depression: The developmental context of stress generation. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 215–234. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400002066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J., & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 276–295. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01614.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schmidt, M., Scharf, S., Sterlemann, V., Ganea, K., Liebl, C., Holsboer, F., et al. (2010). High susceptibility to chronic social stress is associated with a depression-like phenotype. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 635–643. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.10.002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schwartz, J., & Koenig, L. (1996). Response styles & negative affect among adolescents. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 20, 13–36. doi: 10.1007/BF02229241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shih, J., Eberhart, N., Hammen, C., & Brennan, P. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 103–115. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3501_9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tram, J., & Cole, D. (2000). Self-perceived competence and the relation between life events and depressive symptoms in adolescence: Mediator or moderator? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 753–760. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.109.4.753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 247–259. doi: 10.1023/A:1023910315561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Verstraeten, K., Vasey, M. W., Raes, F., & Bijttebier, P. (2010). Brooding and reflection as components of rumination in late childhood. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 367–372. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Woodward, L. J., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. (2002). Deviant partner involvement and offending risk in early adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 177–190. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Cox
    • 1
  • Kristyn Funasaki
    • 1
  • Lauren Smith
    • 1
  • Amy H. Mezulis
    • 1
  1. 1.Seattle Pacific UniversitySeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations