Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 290–299 | Cite as

A Prospective Study of Brooding and Reflection as Moderators of the Relationship between Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence

  • Stephanie Cox
  • Kristyn Funasaki
  • Lauren Smith
  • Amy H. Mezulis
Original Article


This study examined rumination as a moderator of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescents using a multi-wave prospective design. Stressors were analyzed by domain (independent/dependent and interpersonal/noninterpersonal) and both brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined as moderators. At the baseline assessment, 111 adolescents (ages 14–19) reported rumination and depressive symptoms. Youth were subsequently asked to complete a weekly diary assessment for 8 consecutive weeks, and again at 12 weeks, during which stressors and depressive symptoms were reported. Results indicated that brooding, but not reflection, moderated the relationship between stress and depression, for nearly all domains of stress. All results were in the expected direction, suggesting that the greater tendency to brood exacerbates the effects of stress on depression, whereas the greater tendency to reflect does not.


Depression Adolescence Stress Rumination Brooding Reflection 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Cox
    • 1
  • Kristyn Funasaki
    • 1
  • Lauren Smith
    • 1
  • Amy H. Mezulis
    • 1
  1. 1.Seattle Pacific UniversitySeattleUSA

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