Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 111–122 | Cite as

Do Religious and Control Cognitions Predict Risky Behavior? I. Development and Validation of the Alcohol-related God Locus of Control Scale for Adolescents (AGLOC-A)

  • Kathy Goggin
  • Thomas S. Murray
  • Vanessa L. Malcarne
  • Sandra A. Brown
  • Kenneth A. Wallston
Original Article


Adolescent alcohol use is a significant problem. Recent evidence suggests that an individual’s belief that God directly controls his or her alcohol use (i.e., alcohol-related God/Higher Power control) may have particular importance as a protective factor against alcohol use and abuse. However, this relationship has not been investigated in adolescents as there are no appropriate measures to examine such beliefs. To address this need, the present study developed and evaluated a measure of alcohol-related God/Higher Power control beliefs for adolescents (AGLOC-A). African American adolescents (N = 356) completed a questionnaire containing the AGLOC-A, alcohol-related internal control beliefs, and frequency of alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days. Findings supported the AGLOC-A as a reliable and valid measure with AGLOC-A scores inversely related to alcohol involvement and distinct from religiosity and social desirability. Alcohol-related God/Higher Power control beliefs may be a useful protective factor against adolescent alcohol use and abuse.


Measurement development Locus of control Religiosity Adolescents Alcohol Use/Abuse 



This study was supported by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grant R21-AA-1307501 and in part by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Grant 1U79SP08962. We wish to acknowledge the contributions of the youth participants, community partner site staff members, the Kansas City Free Health Clinic “ONYX” staff, and the UMKC HIV/AIDS Research Group, without whom this work could not have been done.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathy Goggin
    • 1
  • Thomas S. Murray
    • 2
  • Vanessa L. Malcarne
    • 3
  • Sandra A. Brown
    • 4
  • Kenneth A. Wallston
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Missouri-Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyThe Ohio State University—MansfieldMansfieldUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare SystemUniversity of California—San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  5. 5.School of NursingVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

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