Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 667–676 | Cite as

Worry, Optimism, and Expectations as Predictors of Anxiety and Performance in the First Year of Law School

  • Hoorie I. Siddique
  • V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci
  • Carol R. Glass
  • Diane B. Arnkoff
  • Rolando J. Díaz
Original Article


Research suggests that worry, optimism, and expectations have subsequent effects on performance, which may be mediated through self-efficacy expectations. The first year of law school provides a unique naturalistic setting in which to study this process. Participants were recruited at orientation and assessed at five points during their first year of law school. Results indicated that worry was significantly related to self-efficacy and anxiety. Controlling for trait anxiety, higher levels of worry were also predictive of better academic performance. Expectations were positively related to class rank and performance on a final exam, and predicted first year law school grade-point average (GPA) even after controlling for undergraduate GPA and Law School Admissions Test score. Optimism was inversely related to both dispositional and state anxiety, although it was not related to performance. Implications of these findings for counseling first-year law students are discussed, and the results may generalize to other professional situations.


Worry Optimism Expectations Anxiety Academic performance Law school 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Professor Leah Wortham, Assistant Dean John F. Lord, Doris Malig, and Michael Koby of the Columbus School of Law of the Catholic University of America. We also wish to thank Kathleen Cimbolic Gunthert for her help with data collection and scoring.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hoorie I. Siddique
    • 1
  • V. Holland LaSalle-Ricci
    • 1
  • Carol R. Glass
    • 1
  • Diane B. Arnkoff
    • 1
  • Rolando J. Díaz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe Catholic University of AmericaWashingtonUSA

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