Advertisement

Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

, Volume 13, Issue 5–6, pp 443–470 | Cite as

Increasing Workplace Independence for People with Cognitive Disabilities by Leveraging Distributed Cognition among Caregivers and Clients

  • Stefan Carmien
  • Rogério DePaula
  • Andrew Gorman
  • Anja Kintsch
Article

Abstract

This paper describes a group configuration that is currently employed to support the everyday living and working activities of people with cognitive disabilities. A client receiving face-to-face, often one-to-one, assistance from a dedicated human job coach is characteristic of this “traditional” configuration. We compare it with other group configurations that are used in cooperative and distributed work practices and propose an alternative configuration titled active distributed support system. In so doing, we highlight requirements that are unique to task support for people with cognitive disabilities. In particular, we assert that the knowledge of how to perform such activities is shared not only among people, but also between people and artifacts. There is a great potential for innovative uses of ubiquitous and mobile technologies to support these activities. A survey of technologies that have been developed to provide these individuals with greater levels of independence is then presented. These endeavors often attempt to replace human job coaches with computational cognitive aids. We discuss some limitations of such approaches and present a model and prototype that extends the computational job coach by incorporating human caregivers in a distributed one-to-many support system.

Keywords

active distributed support disabilities lifeline MAPS work group organization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. APA (1994): Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Baesman, B. and N. Baesman (2003): Visions System website, at www.thevisionssystem.com.Google Scholar
  3. Braddock, D. 2002Public Financial Support for Disability at the Dawn of the 21st CenturyBraddock, D. eds. Disability at the Dawn of the 21st Century and the State of the StatesAmerican Association on Mental RetardationWashington, DC6576Google Scholar
  4. BVSD (2004): Boulder Valley School District website, at www.bvsd.k12.co.us.Google Scholar
  5. Carmien, S. (2003): MAPS: Dynamic Scaffolding for Independence for Persons with Cognitive Impairments. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on User Modeling (UM’2003), pp. 408–410.Google Scholar
  6. Carmien, S., R. DePaula, A. Gorman and A. Kintsch (2003): Increasing Workplace Independence for People with Cognitive Disabilities by Leveraging Distributed Cognition among Caregivers and Clients. In Proceedings of the ACM 2003 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP ‘03). New York: ACM Press, pp. 95–104. At doi.acm.org/10.1145/958160.958176.Google Scholar
  7. Carmien, S. and A. Gorman (2003): Creating Distributed Support Systems to Enhance the Quality of Life for People with Cognitive Disabilities. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Ubiquitous Computing for Pervasive Healthcare Applications (UbiHealth 2003). At www.healthcare.pervasive.dk/ubicomp2003/papers/Final_Papers/4.pdf.Google Scholar
  8. Castells, M. eds. 1996The Rise of the Network Society: The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, vol. IBlackwellCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  9. Davies, D.K. (2004): Ablelink Technologies website, at www.ablelinktech.com.Google Scholar
  10. Davies, D.K. and S.E. Stock (1996): PictureCoach and PocketCoach: An Integrated Multi-Media Training System for Teaching and Maintaining Vocational Skills for Adults with Developmental Disabilities. Closing the Gap.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, D.K., Stock, S.E., Wehmeyer, M.L. 2002Enhancing Independent Task Performance for Individuals with Mental Retardation through Use of a Handheld Self-directed Visual and Audio Prompting SystemEducation and Training in Developmental Disabilities37209219Google Scholar
  12. Engeström, Y., Engeström, R., Vähäaho, T. 1999When the Center Doesn’t Hold: The Importance of KnotworkingJensen, U. eds. Activity Theory and Social Practice: Cultural-Historical Approaches AarhusAarhus University PressDenmarkGoogle Scholar
  13. Fischer, G. 1994Turning Breakdowns into Opportunities for CreativityKnowledge-Based Systems, Special Issue on Creativity and Cognition7221232Google Scholar
  14. Fischer, G. (2003): Distributed Cognition: A Conceptual Framework for Design-for-All. In C. Stephanidis (ed.), Proceedings of HCI International 2003, Crete Greece, June, 2003. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 78–82.Google Scholar
  15. Fischer, G., P. Ehn, Y. Engeström and J. Virkkunen (2002): Symmetry of Ignorance and Informed Participation. In Proceedings of the Participatory Design Conference (PDC’02), pp. 426–428.Google Scholar
  16. Fischer, G. and J.F. Sullivan (2002): Human-Centered Public Transportation Systems for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities–Challenges and Insights for Participatory Design. In Proceedings of the 7th Participatory Design Conference, pp. 194–198.Google Scholar
  17. Han, R. (2003): MANTIS Website, at mantis.cs.colorado.edu.Google Scholar
  18. Hollan, J., Hutchins, E., Kirsch, D. 2001Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction ResearchCarroll, J. M. eds. Human-Computer Interaction in the New MillenniumACM PressNew York7594Google Scholar
  19. Hutchins, E. eds. 1994Cognition in the WildThe MIT PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  20. Imagine! (2004): Imagine! website, at www.imaginecolorado.org.Google Scholar
  21. Isaac (2004): Isaac project website, at www.english.certec.lth.se/Isaac.Google Scholar
  22. Jönsson, B. and A. Svensk (1995): Isaac–A Personal Digital Assistant for the Differently Abled. In Proceedings of the 2nd TIDE Congress, Paris, France, pp. 356–361. At www.certec.lth.se/doc/isaaca.Google Scholar
  23. Landauer, T.K. 1995The Trouble with ComputersMIT PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  24. LaPlante, M.E., Hendershot, G.E., Moss, A.J. 1997The Prevalence of Need for Assistive Technology Devices and Home Accessibility Features.Technology and Disability.61728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lewis, C.H., Norman, D.A. 1986Designing for ErrorNorman, D.A.Draper, S.W. eds. User Centered System Design, New Perspectives on Human-Computer InteractionLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesHillsdale, NJ411432Google Scholar
  26. Nardi, B.A., O’Day, V.L. 1999Information EcologiesMIT PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  27. Nardi, B.A., Whittaker, S., Schwarz, H. 2002NetWORKers and Their Activity in Intentional NetworksComputer Supported Cooperative Work11205242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Norman, D.A. eds. 1990The Design of Everyday ThingsCurrency DoubledayNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Norman, D.A. eds. 1993Things That Make Us SmartAddison-Wesley Publishing CompanyReading, MAGoogle Scholar
  30. Russel, J.N., G.E. Hendershot, F. LeClerer, H. Jean and M. Adler (1997): Trends and Differential Use of Assistive Technology Devices: United States: 1994: Advanced Data From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  31. Salomon, G. eds. 1993Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational ConsiderationsCambridge University PressCambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. Suchman, L.A. eds. 1987Plans and Situated ActionsCambridge University PressCambridge, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for LifeLong Learning and DesignUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.BoulderValley School DistrictUSA

Personalised recommendations