Constitutional Political Economy

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 80–96 | Cite as

Relationships among democratic freedoms in the former Soviet Republics: a causality analysis

  • Jac C. Heckelman
Original Paper


Empirical studies often use Freedom House ratings for Political Rights and/or Civil Liberties as institutional proxies for the degree of democracy. In this study, Granger-causality tests are used which reveal that Political Rights tend to precede Civil Liberties, but not the reverse, in a panel data set of former Soviet Republics. For transition nations, Freedom House also publishes a separate breakdown of democratic characteristics. Empirical tests suggest Civil Society and Judicial Framework Granger-cause Electoral Process, Governance Granger-causes Civil Society, and all four components Granger-cause Independent Media. Each measure of democracy is related to at least one other but no evidence for dual causation is found.


Democracy Political rights Civil liberties Granger-causality 

JEL Classification

D72 H11 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

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