Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 52, Issue 8, pp 1113–1117 | Cite as

Application of SCOPE-C to Measure Social Inclusion Among Mental Health Services Users in Hong Kong

  • Kara Chan
  • Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu
  • Sherrill Evans
  • Peter J. Huxley
  • Yu-Leung Ng
Brief Report


This study describes the construction of the Chinese version of the Social and Communities Opportunities Profile (SCOPE), henceforth, the SCOPE-C, to measure social inclusion among mental health services users in Hong Kong. The SCOPE-C was developed based on concept-mapping and benchmarking of census questions. The questionnaire consisted of 56 items, went through a standardized linguistic validation process and was pilot tested with qualitative feedback from five users of mental health services. Altogether 168 Chinese service users were recruited through various NGO mental health services to have three times face-to-face interview between October 2013 and July 2014. Results indicated that items related to satisfaction with opportunities and perceived opportunities in various social domains had high consistency. Nearly all the Kappa statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients between the baseline and two rounds of re-test were significant. The SCOPE-C was considered a valid instrument for Hong Kong mental health user population.


Inclusive practices Perceived opportunities Social policy Need assessment 



This project was funded by Economic and Social Research Council (Project No.: ES/K005227/1). We are thankful to the NGOs who facilitate our contact with the voluntary participants who took part in the study. These NGOs include Baptist Oi Kwan Social Services, Caritas Hong Kong, Fu Hong Society, Stewards Social Services, The Mental Health Association of Hong Kong, The Society of Rehabilitation and Crime Prevention.


  1. Chan, K., Evans, S., Ng, Y. L., Chiu, Y. L., & Huxley, P. J. (2014). A concept mapping study on social inclusion in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 119(1), 121–137. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0498-1.Google Scholar
  2. Coaley, K. (2014). An introduction to psychological assessment and psychometrics (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Curran, C., Burchardt, T., Knapp, M., McDaid, D., & Li, B. (2007). Challenges in multi-disciplinary systematic reviewing: Improving the evidence base for social exclusion and mental health policy. Social Policy and Administration, 41(3), 289–312. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9515.2007.00553.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development theory and applications (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.Google Scholar
  5. Evans, S., & Huxley, P. (2005). Adaptation, response shift and quality of life ratings in mentally well and unwell groups. Quality of Life Research, 14(7), 1719–1732. doi: 10.1007/s11136-005-1742-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department. (2012). 2011 population censusMain report: Volume II. Retrieved from
  7. Huxley, P., Evans, S., Madge, S., Webber, M., Burchardt, T., McDaid, D., & Knapp, M. (2012). Development of a social inclusion index to capture subjective and objective life domains (phase II): Psychometric development study. Health Technology Assessment, 16(1), 1–248. doi: 10.3310/hta16010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huxley, P., Evans, S., Munroe, M., & Philpin, S. (2008). SCOPE for social inclusion? A Life in the Day, 12(3), 33–35. doi: 10.1108/13666282200800029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huxley, P., Evans, S., Munroe, M., Webber, M., Burchardt T., Knapp, M., & McDaid, D. (2006). Development of a ‘social inclusion index’ to capture subjective and objective domains (Phase I): Final report to NCCRM. Retrieved from
  10. The World Bank. (2013). Social inclusion. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kara Chan
    • 1
  • Marcus Yu-Lung Chiu
    • 2
  • Sherrill Evans
    • 3
  • Peter J. Huxley
    • 4
  • Yu-Leung Ng
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Communication StudiesHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloonHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Social Work, Faculty of Arts and Social SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.School of Human SciencesSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK
  4. 4.Centre for Mental Health and SocietyBangor UniversityBangorUK

Personalised recommendations