Social Inequalities in Psychological Well-Being: A European Comparison
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The objective was to explore the educational differences in psychological well-being, measured using the WHO-5 Index, among 15,362 men and 20,272 women in 31 European countries. Relative Index of Inequality, multilevel logistic regression analyses and interaction tests were performed. Within Europe, large cross-national differences in the prevalence of poor well-being were observed. In almost all countries, the prevalence of poor well-being was higher in low educational groups, but the magnitude of these inequalities was much larger in some countries than in others. The highest social differences in well-being were observed in the European Union candidates countries among both genders. Future health promotion programs should consider strategies that target lower educational groups.
KeywordsWell-being WHO-5 Index Social inequalities in health Relative Index of Inequality Education Gender Europe
This study was supported by the French research network of health, environment and toxicology of the Île-de-France region (DIM SEnT, PhD funding for Stefanie Schütte, Grant No. 10-T1) and by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES, previously called AFSSET, Grant No. 2009-1-43).
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