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Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds

, Volume 52, Issue 11, pp 856–865 | Cite as

Mechanochemical and sonochemical heterocyclizations

  • Emanuela Calcio Gaudino
  • Silvia Tagliapietra
  • Stefano Mantegna
  • Giancarlo Cravotto
Article
Heterocycle formation reactions require efficient catalysis and suitable physical activation. Sonochemistry and mechanochemistry can dramatically promote heterocyclizations in heterogeneous conditions using benign solvents and even in solventless conditions by means of ball mills. Besides facilitating quick cyclization, these technologies bring with them safer protocols, cost reduction, energy saving, process intensification, and waste minimization. The aim of this review is to describe a number of relevant synthetic advances in the last two years and to highlight the huge unexploited potential of both sonochemistry and mechanochemistry.

Keywords

heterocycles ball mill cyclization green chemistry ultrasound 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuela Calcio Gaudino
    • 1
  • Silvia Tagliapietra
    • 1
  • Stefano Mantegna
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Cravotto
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco and NIS-Centre for Nanostructured Interfaces and SurfacesUniversity of TurinTurinItaly

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