Advertisement

Conservation Genetics

, Volume 5, Issue 6, pp 797–812 | Cite as

Genetic population structure of central Oregon Coast coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

  • Michael J. Ford
  • David Teel
  • Donald M. Van Doornik
  • David Kuligowski
  • Peter W. Lawson
Article

Abstract

We surveyed microsatellite variation from 22 spawning populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Oregon Coast to help identify populations for conservation planning. All of our samples were temporally replicated, with most samples obtained in 2000 and 2001. We had three goals: (1) to confirm the status of populations identified on the basis of spawning location and life history; (2) to estimate effective population sizes and migration rates in order to determine demographic independence at different spatial scales; and (3) to determine if releases of Washington hatchery coho salmon in the 1980's into Oregon Coast streams resulted in measurable introgression into nearby wild Oregon Coast coho populations. For the last question, our study included a hatchery broodstock sample from 1985, after the Puget Sound introduction, and a 1975 sample taken from the same area prior to the introduction. Our results generally supported previously hypothesized population structure. Most importantly, we found unique lake-rearing groups identified on the basis of a common life-history type were genetically related. Estimates of immigrant fraction using several different methods also generally supported previously identified populations. Estimates of effective population size were highly correlated with estimates of spawning abundance. The 1985 hatchery sample was genetically similar to contemporary Washington samples, and the contemporary Oregon Coast samples were similar to the 1975 Oregon Coast sample, suggesting that introductions of Washington coho salmon did not result in large scale introgression into Oregon populations.

conservation unit effective population size migration salmon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Banks MA, Blouin MS, Baldwin BA, Rashbrook VK, Fitzgerald HA, Blankenship SM, Hedgecock D (1999) Isolation and inheritance of novel microsatellites in chinook salmon. J. Hered., 90, 281–288.Google Scholar
  2. Bartley DM, Bentley B, Olin PG, Gall GAE (1992) Population structure of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch )in California. Calif. Fish Game, 7, 88–104.Google Scholar
  3. Borgerson LA (1991) Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Annual Progress Report. Fish Res. Proj. F-144–R-2, Scale Analysis. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  4. Busby PJ, Wainwright TC, Bryant GJ, Lierheimer LJ, Waples RS, Waknitz FW, Lagomarino IV (1996) Status review of west coast steelhead from Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-27.Google Scholar
  5. Condrey MJ, Bentzen P (1998) Characterization of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki )microsatellites and their conservation in other salmonids. Mol. Ecol., 7, 787–789.Google Scholar
  6. Currens KP, Farnsworth D (1993) Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Oregon Coho Salmon. Report to Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  7. Department of Commerce (1998) Endangered and threatened species:Threatened status for the Oregon Coast evolutionarily significant unit of coho salmon. Fed. Reg., 63, 42587–42591.Google Scholar
  8. Felsenstein J (1981) Evolutionary trees from DNA sequences:A maximum likelihood approach. J. Mol. Evol., 17, 368–376.Google Scholar
  9. Felsenstein J (1993) PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3. 5c. Distributed by the author. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, Seattle. http://evolution.genetics.washington.edu/phylip.html.Google Scholar
  10. Forbes S, Knudsen K, Allendorf F (1993) Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salon from the Lower Columbia River. Final Report to the U. S. Dep. Energy, Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Contract DE-B179–92BP 30198.Google Scholar
  11. Ford MJ (2003) Conservation Units and Preserving Diversity. In:Salmonid Perspectives on Evolution (ed. Hendry A). Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. Fraser DJ, Bernatchez L (2001) Adaptive evolutionary conservation:Towards a unified concept for defining conservation units. Mol. Ecol., 10, 2741–2752.Google Scholar
  13. Gustafson RS, Wainwright TC, Winans GA, Waknitz FW, Parker LT, Waples RS (1997) Status review of sockeye salmon from Washington and Oregon. NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-33.Google Scholar
  14. Hard JJ, Kope RG, Grant WS, Waknitz FW, Parker LT, Waples RS (1996) Status review of pink salmon from Washington, Oregon, and California. NOAA Tech. Memo., NMFS-NWFSC-25.Google Scholar
  15. Hasting A (1993) Complex interactions between dispersal and dynamics:Lessons from coupled logistic equations. Ecology, 74, 1362–1372.Google Scholar
  16. Hjort RC, C. B. Schreck CB (1982) Phenotypic differences among stocks of hatchery and wild coho salmon, On-corhynchus kisutch, in Oregon, Washington, and California. Fish. Bull. U. S., 80, 105–119.Google Scholar
  17. Holm S (1979) A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scand. J. Stat., 6, 65–70.Google Scholar
  18. Jacobs SE (1988) Straying in Oregon of Adult Coho Salmon of Hatchery Origin. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Info. Rep. 88. 5. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  19. Johnson OW, Grant WS, Kope RG, Neely K, Waknitz FW, Waples RS (1997) Status review of chum salmon from Washington, Oregon, and California. NMFS-NWFSC-32.Google Scholar
  20. Labelle M (1992) Straying patterns of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch )stocks from southeast Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Can. J. Aquat. Fish. Sci., 49, 1843–1855.Google Scholar
  21. Lawson P, Bjorkstedt E, Huntington C, Nickelson T, Reeves G, Stout H, Wainwright T (2004) Identification of historical populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch )in the Oregon Coast Evolutionarily Significant Unit. Co-manager 's Draft.Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport, Oregon.Google Scholar
  22. Lewis PO, Zaykin D (2001) Genetic Data Analysis:Computer Program for the Analysis of Allelic Data. Version 1. 0 (d16c). http://lewis.eeb.uconn.edu/lewishome/software.html.Google Scholar
  23. Matthews GM, Waples RS (1991) Status review for snake river spring and summer chinook salmon. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/NWC-200.Google Scholar
  24. McElhany P, Ruckelshaus MH, Ford MJ, Wainwright TC, Bjorkstedt EP (2000) Viable salmonid populations and the recovery of evolutionarily significant units. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC 42.Google Scholar
  25. Myers JM, Kope RG, Bryant GJ, Teel D, Lierheimer LJ, Wainwright TC, Grand WS, Waknitz FW, Neely K, Lindley ST, Waples RS (1998) Status review of Chinook salmon from Washington, Idaho, Oregon and California. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-35.Google Scholar
  26. Naish KA, Park LK (2002) Linkage relationships for 35 new microsatellite loci in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ). Anim. Genet., 33, 316–318.Google Scholar
  27. Nickelson TE (2001) Population assessment:Oregon Coast Coho Salmon ESU. Northwest region research and monitoring program. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  28. Nickelson TE (2003) The influence of hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ) on the productivity of wild coho salmon populations in Oregon coastal basins. Can. J. Aquat. Fish. Sci., 60, 1050–1056.Google Scholar
  29. Nielsen JL (1995) Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem:defining unique units in population conservation. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 17. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  30. Olin PG (1984) Genetic Variability in Hatchery and Wild Populations of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in Oregon. MS thesis, University of California, Davis, California, USA.Google Scholar
  31. Olsen JB, Miller SJ, Spearman WJ, Wenburg JK (2003) Patterns of intra-and inter-population genetic diversity in Alaskan coho salmon:implications for conservation. Conserv. Genet., 4, 557–569.Google Scholar
  32. Pennock DS, Dimmick WW (1997) Critique of the evolutionarily significant unit as a definition for ''distinct population segment ''under the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Conserv. Biol., 11, 611–619.Google Scholar
  33. Quinn TP (1993) A review of homing and straying of wild and hatchery-produced salmon. Fish. Res., 18, 19–44.Google Scholar
  34. Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1. 2): Population genetics software for exact tests and ecumeni-cism. J. Hered., 86, 248–249.Google Scholar
  35. Reisenbichler RR, Phelps SR (1987) Genetic variation in chinook, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and coho, O. kisutch, salmon from the north coast of Washington. Fish. Bull. U. S., 85, 681–701.Google Scholar
  36. Sandercock FK (1991) Life history of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch ). In:Pacific Salmon Life Histories (eds. Groot C, Margolis L). University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar
  37. Small MP, Beacham TD, Withler RE, Nelson RJ (1998) Discriminating coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)popula-tions within the Fraser River, British Columbia, using microsatellite DNA markers. Mol. Ecol., 7, 141–155.Google Scholar
  38. Smith CT, Koop BF, Nelson RJ (1998) Isolation and characterization of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)micro-satellites and their use in other salmonids. Mol. Ecol., 7, 1614–1616.Google Scholar
  39. Solazzi MF (1986) Electrophoretic Stock Characterization of Coho Salmon Populations in Oregon and Washington, and Coastal Chinook Salmon Populations in Oregon. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  40. Tajima F (1992) Statistical method for estimating the effective population size in Pacific salmon. J. Hered., 83, 309–311.Google Scholar
  41. Teel DJ, Van Doornik DM, Kuligowski DR, Grant WS (2003) Genetic analysis of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch )o. Oregon and Washington reveals few Columbia River wildfish. Fish. Bull. U. S., 101, 640–652.Google Scholar
  42. Utter F (2000) Patterns of subspecific anthropogenic introgression in two salmonid genera. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher., 10, 265–279.Google Scholar
  43. Van Doornik DM, Ford MJ, Teel DJ (2002) Patterns of temporal genetic variation in coho salmon:estimates of the effective proportion of 2–year-olds in natural and hatchery populations. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 131, 1007–1019.Google Scholar
  44. Wang J, Whitlock MC (2003) Estimating effective population size and migration rates from genetic samples over space and time. Genetics, 163, 429–446.Google Scholar
  45. Waples RS (1990) Conservation genetics of Pacific salmon. III. Estimating effective population size. J. Hered., 81, 277–289.Google Scholar
  46. Waples RS (1991) Pacific salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., and the definition of ''species ''under the Endangered Species Act. Mar. Fish. Rev., 53, 11–22.Google Scholar
  47. Waples RS (1995) Evolutionarily significant units and the conservation of biological diversity under the Endangered Species Act. Evolution and the Aquatic Ecosystem:Defining unique units in population conservation. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp., 17, 8–27.Google Scholar
  48. Waples RS (1998) Evolutionarily significant units, distinct population segments, and the Endangered Species Act:reply to Pennock and Dimmick. Conserv. Biol., 12, 718–721.Google Scholar
  49. Waples RS, Johnson OW, Aebersold PB, Shiflett CK, Van Doornik DM, Teel DJ, Cook AE (1993) A Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin. Annual Report of Research to the Division of Fish and Wildlife, Bonneville Power Administration, Department of Energy, Project 89–096. Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington.Google Scholar
  50. Waples RS, Gustafson RG, Weitkamp LA, Myers JM, Johnson OW, Busby PJ, Hard JJ, Bryant GJ, Waknitz FW, Neely K, Teel D, Grant WS, Winans GA, Phelps S, Marshall A, Baker BM (2001) Characterizing diversity in salmon from the Pacific Northwest. J. Fish Biol., 59 (Suppl. A), 1–41.Google Scholar
  51. Weir BS (1996) Genetic Data Analysis II. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA.Google Scholar
  52. Weir BS, Cockerham CC (1984) Estimating F-statistics for the analysis of population structure. Evolution, 38, 1358–1370.Google Scholar
  53. Weitkamp LA, Wainwright TC, Bryant GJ, Milner GB, Teel DJ, Kope RG, Waples RS (1995) Status Review of Coho Salmon from Washington, Oregon and California. NOAA Tech. Memo, NMFS-NWFSC-24.Google Scholar
  54. Wright S (1978) Evolution and the genetics of populations. Vol. 4. Variability within and among natural populations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Ford
    • 1
  • David Teel
    • 1
  • Donald M. Van Doornik
    • 1
  • David Kuligowski
    • 1
  • Peter W. Lawson
    • 1
  1. 1.NOAA-Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science CenterConservation Biology DivisionSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations