Clinical & Experimental Metastasis

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Radiopharmaceuticals for metastatic bone pain palliation: available options in the clinical domain and their comparisons

  • Tapas Das
  • Sharmila Banerjee


Bone pain arising due to skeletal metastases is one of the common complications experienced by the majority of patients suffering from prostate, breast and lung cancer at the advanced stage of the disease. These patients are subjected to palliative care in order to improve the quality of their remaining life. With the gradually increasing number of cancer cases, palliation of metastatic bone pain is gaining importance. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals play a pivotal role in the management of cancer pain, particularly in patients with multiple metastases, as these agents are proven to be effective in controlling the bone pain with minimum side effects. Although a plethora of such radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and evaluated in animal models, only a few are regularly used in clinics while some of these agents are at different stages of clinical evaluations. The present article describes only those bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, which have been reported to be clinically administered till date, along with their relative merits and drawbacks.


Bone pain palliation Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals Radiolabeled phosphonates Na332PO4 89SrCl2 117mSn-DTPA 223RaCl2 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. Ajit Shinto, Head, Department of Nuclear Medicine & PET-CT, Kovai Medical Center and Hospital, Coimbatore, India for proving the patient images used in this article. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is a constituent of Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India and all research activities of the institute is fully funded by the Government of India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Radiopharmaceuticals Chemistry Section, Radiochemistry and Isotope Group Bhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Homi Bhabha National InstituteMumbaiIndia

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