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Table 7 Summary statistics

From: A new look at carbon dioxide emissions in MENA countries

  C it Y it EU it TRADE it FDI it FIN it EI it EC it
Mean 14.20 17,100.19 4470.36 88.40 2.09 44.55 5.34 2.98
SD 17.02 22,058.76 5085.43 34.79 3.46 24.46 2.47 0.65
Min. 0.48 742.56 112.05 30.09 −13.60 2.75 2.78 1.72
Q1 (.25) 2.33 2704.35 670.25 63.44 0.19 24.23 3.71 2.63
Median 4.08 5423.57 1181.87 85.91 1.05 43.16 4.25 2.86
Q3 (.75) 23.05 21,067.17 8083.59 103.12 2.98 63.58 5.69 3.20
Max. 87.69 116,232.75 22,120.37 251.14 33.57 106.34 12.48 6.14
Skewness 1.711 1.933 1.185 1.193 2.886 0.286 1.57 1.78
Kurtosis 2.815 3.677 0.504 2.163 17.946 −0.818 1.24 5.27
Jarque–Bera 449.277 (0.000) 590.710 (0.000) 128.486 (0.000) 214.413 (0.000) 8203.521 (0.000) 18.939 (0.000) 83.28 (0.00) 412.69 (0.00)
  1. Notes: Upper-case letters are used here to reflect variables in levels (not in logarithms). CO2 emissions (Cit); real GDP per capita (Yit); energy use (EUit); trade openness (TRADEit); foreign direct investment (FDIit); financial development (FINit); energy intensity (EIit); and energy-related CO2 emissions (ECit). SD, min., max., Q1 (.25), and Q3 (.75) are the standard deviation, minimum, maximum, first quartile, and third quartile, respectively. The data period is 1970–2015