Climatic Change

, Volume 140, Issue 2, pp 307–322

Tracking regional temperature projections from the early 1990s in light of variations in regional warming, including ‘warming holes’

  • Michael R. Grose
  • James S. Risbey
  • Penny H. Whetton

DOI: 10.1007/s10584-016-1840-9

Cite this article as:
Grose, M.R., Risbey, J.S. & Whetton, P.H. Climatic Change (2017) 140: 307. doi:10.1007/s10584-016-1840-9


The perception of the accuracy of regional climate projections made in the early 1990s about climate change by 2030 may be influenced by how the temperature trend has changed in the 25 years since their publication. However, temperature trends over this period were influenced not only by external forcings such as greenhouse gases but also natural variations. The temperature of Southern Australia, the Sahel, South Asia and Southern Europe are currently within the warming estimates from statements in the early 1990s from the IPCC and CSIRO, assuming a linear trend between 1990 and 2030. However, northern Australia and central North America are currently at the lower limit or below these projections, having featured areas of multi-year regional cooling during global warming, sometimes called ‘warming holes’. Recent climate model simulations suggest that cooling can be expected in the recent past and near future in some regions, including in Australia and the US, and that cooling is less likely over 1990–2030 than in 1990–2015, bringing observations closer to the IPCC and CSIRO warming estimates by 2030. Cooling at the 25-year scale in some regions can be associated with cyclic variability such as the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation, or low trend such as in the Southern Ocean. Explicitly communicating the variability in regional warming rates in climate projections, including the possibility of regional warming ‘holes’ (or the opposite of ‘surges’ or ‘peaks’) would help to set more reliable expectations by users of those projections.


Regional climate change Climate variability Climate projections 

Supplementary material

10584_2016_1840_MOESM1_ESM.docx (22 kb)
Supplementary Material(DOCX 22 kb)

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
National Environmental Science Program, Earth System and Climate Change Hub

    Copyright information

    © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

    Authors and Affiliations

    • Michael R. Grose
      • 1
    • James S. Risbey
      • 1
    • Penny H. Whetton
      • 2
    1. 1.CSIRO Oceans and AtmosphereHobartAustralia
    2. 2.CSIRO Oceans and AtmosphereAspendaleAustralia

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