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Table 1 Model scales and variables with measures of reliability

From: Farmer’s intended and actual adoption of climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies

Latent variable Question/statement Scale Eigenvalue Factor loadings Alpha Mean
Potential Adaptation Adoption If the future climate in the local region resulted in more extreme weather or changes in water and temperature, which of the following management strategies would you use beyond what you currently do? Five Point Scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) 3.12 0.78 2.46
Participate in a community irrigation scheme 0.74 2.19
Concentrate river water on a smaller percentage of acreage 0.74 1.96
Pump more ground water 0.65 2.26
Drill more wells or seek alternative water sources 0.71 2.46
Build water storage facilities 0.72 3.07
Adopt a water monitoring technology 0.77 2.83
Potential Mitigation Adoption Which if any of the following practices would you be likely to adopt to reduce your energy use and/or greenhouse gas emissions? Five Point Scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) 3.12 0.76 2.75
Reduce electricity usage in farm operations or buildings 0.7 2.9
Invest in more fuel efficient farm equipment 0.8 3.37
Install solar panels or wind turbines 0.61 3.17
Use biomass or biofuels for on-farm energy needs 0.63 2.65
Reduce N fertilizer rate 0.67 2.73
Improve N use efficiency through precision placement or timing 0.63 3.3
Transition to organic farming 0.37 2.04
Plant trees on low performing areas 0.49 2.99
Actual Adaptation Adoption Aggregate of the total number of adaptation practices listed above a farmer had adopted Count Variable ranging from 1 to 6 0.68
Actual Mitigation Adoption Aggregate of the total number of mitigation practices listed above a farmer had adopted Count Variable ranging from 1 to 8 1.42
Climate Change Concern Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion are an important cause of climate change Five Point Scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) 3.22
Biophysical Concern How concerned are you about the following potential climate related risks and the future impact they may have on your farming operations during your career? Four Point Scale (1 = Not Concerned, 4 = Very Concerned) 4.86 0.87 2.46
More severe droughts 0.68 2.68
Change in timing, intensity or frequency of rainfall events 0.73 2.6
Less reliable water supply 0.71 2.68
Increased frequency or intensity of flooding 0.71 2.41
Increased frequency or intensity of slips or erosion 0.62 2.19
Fewer winter chill hours 0.57 1.91
Increase in frequency or intensity of frost 0.59 2.13
Warmer temperatures 0.69 2.11
More frequent heat waves 0.74 2.32
Increase in weeds or invasive species 0.65 2.74
New pests or diseases 0.59 3.11
Environmental Policy   Five Point Scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) 1.86 0.69 2.44
New Zealand should have implemented an Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 0.88 2.03
Agriculture should be included in the New Zealand ETS 0.9 2.14
Environmental regulations are effective at protecting natural resources 0.53 3.06
Local Perceived Capacity I feel confident that I can implement practices to reduce my greenhouse gas emissions Five Point Scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) 3.24
Global Perceived Capacity How confident are you in your ability to adapt to the possible risks and/or problems caused by climate change? Five Point Scale (1 = Not Confident, 5 = Very Confident) 3.92
Profit Adoption If considering the adoption of new practices or technologies how important are the following factors? Five Point Scale (1 = Not Important, 5 = Very Important) 1.81 0.65 4.16
The cost 0.78 4.49
The impact on farm productivity 0.84 4.33
The time 0.7 3.66
Community Adoption If considering the adoption of new practices or technologies how important are the following factors? Five Point Scale (1 = Not Important, 5 = Very Important) 1.99 0.75 3.86
The ethics or social implications 0.82 3.82
The ability for it to reduce my environmental impact 0.82 3.86
The ability for it to improve my community 0.81 3.89
Contact Scale In the last year, how often did you communicate or interact with the following organizations about agricultural issues? Five Point Scale (1 = Never, 2 = Annually, 3 = 3–6 Months, 4 = Monthly, 5 = Weekly) 2.3   0.65 2.33
Agricultural industry group   0.72   2.43
Federated farmers   0.47   1.73
The regional council   0.61   2.4
Research organization   0.61   1.78
Farm consultant   0.5   1.9
Other farmers   0.44   4.23
Supply representatives   0.6   3.72
  1. Italics indicate a prompting question