Response of rice production to elevated [CO2] and its interaction with rising temperature or nitrogen supply: a meta-analysis
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We used meta-analysis to synthesize 125 studies assessing the responses of rice production to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), and the interaction of elevated [CO2] with rising temperature or N supply. Elevated [CO2] significantly enhanced rice yield by 20 %, despite no significant increase in grain size and harvest index at elevated [CO2]. Belowground biomass increased at elevated [CO2] to a larger extent than aboveground biomass. Among the Japonica, Indica and Hybrid rice cultivars, Hybrid cultivars generally showed the greatest growth response to elevated [CO2]. The maximum enhancement of rice yield was observed at 600–699 ppm [CO2] with less benefit in studies with lower or higher elevated [CO2] levels. Rice yield responses to elevated [CO2] were smaller in FACE compared with the other fumigation methods, largely associated with lower photosynthesis. Increases in rice yield at elevated [CO2] were constrained by limited N supply. The detrimental effect of rising temperature on spikelet fertility and harvest index were not be fully counteracted by elevated [CO2] effects. Together, the results of this meta-analysis suggest that rising [CO2] and warming accompanied by low N supply are unlikely to stimulate rice production, especially with the current trajectory of emissions scenarios.
KeywordsAboveground Biomass Leaf Area Index Rice Cultivar Rice Production Harvest Index
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC-41225003), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (KYTZ201404), Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (200903003), the Ministry of Education 111 project (B12009), the PADA and Tang Cornell-China Scholarship.
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