Climatic Change

, Volume 113, Issue 3–4, pp 599–621 | Cite as

RegCM3 nested in HadAM3 scenarios A2 and B2: projected changes in extratropical cyclogenesis, temperature and precipitation over the South Atlantic Ocean

  • Luiz Fernando Krüger
  • Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha
  • Michelle Simões Reboita
  • Tércio Ambrizzi


The RegCM3 (Regional Climate Model—version 3) was nested in HadAM3 model to simulate present (1975–1989, referred hereafter as RegHad) and two future climate scenarios (A2 and B2 from 2071 to 2085, referred as RegA2 and RegB2) over the South America (SA) and South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Projected changes in the air temperature, precipitation, low level circulation and cyclogenesis climatology were investigated. The cyclogenesis were identified using an automatic scheme for tracking based on the minimum of relative vorticity (ζ) from 10-m height wind. During summer, a general decrease (increase) in the precipitation is projected by RegA2 and RegB2 over the northeastern SA (center-west and south Brazil, north Argentina and Uruguay). For winter, an anomalous low level anticyclonic circulation is associated with the reduction in the rainfall over the central part of southern Brazil in RegA2 and RegB2 scenarios. Similar to HadAM3, RegCM3 projects larger warming in A2 scenario. For the present climate, when compared to HadAM3, RegHad defines better both the location of the main cyclogenetic areas and its annual cycle near southwestern SAO. The projections indicate a reduction in the total number of cyclones of −7.2% and −4.7% for RegA2 and RegB2, respectively, while HadAM3 reduction is ~−4.5% for both scenarios. The decrease is larger for initially intense cyclones (ζ ≤ −2.5 × 10−5 s−1): −20.9% (RegA2) and −11.3% (RegB2). For the lifetime, distance traveled and mean velocity of the cyclones, the A2 and B2 scenarios present mean values close to the present climate (~3 days, ~1900 km, and ~9 m s−1, respectively). Regarding the initial mean vorticity of the systems, RegB2 simulates values similar to the present climate, but they are initially weaker in RegA2. In general, RegA2 and RegB2 show a large decrease in the number of cyclones over the southern SAO due to an anticyclonic anomaly covering SAO between 30–55°S. The reduction is larger in the scenario with higher concentrations of greenhouse gases (RegA2).


Cyclone Rainfall Rate Present Climate Relative Vorticity NCEP Reanalysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, Proc. 307519/2008-2 and 476361/2006-0) of Brazil for the financial support and to the CLARIS-LPB (A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin) European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013). We also thank the Hadley Centre for making available the scenarios projection through of the MMA/BIRD/GEF/CNPq (PROBIO Project). We also acknowledge the NCEP and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), respectively, for providing the data set and the RegCM3 code used in this study. TA also acknowledges the support from CNPq, CNPq/FAPESP INCT for Climate Change and FAPESP. Finally, we thank the Systems Analysts Sebastião Antonio Silva, Samuel Reis Silva and Djalma Melo for valuable assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luiz Fernando Krüger
    • 1
  • Rosmeri Porfírio da Rocha
    • 1
  • Michelle Simões Reboita
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tércio Ambrizzi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Natural Resources InstituteFederal University of ItajubáItajubáBrazil

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