Climatic Change

, Volume 104, Issue 3–4, pp 539–573 | Cite as

Global carbon mechanisms: lessons and implications

  • Michael Grubb
  • Tim Laing
  • Thomas Counsell
  • Catherine Willan


We outline the theoretical and political background to the global carbon mechanisms and how they emerged in the form of the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation, and Intergovernmental Emissions Trading. We present empirical data on the response to date and the variants that have arisen. Based on this, we analyse the issues and evidence on the main controversies around additionality, efficiency and effectiveness of the instruments. The final part of the paper considers some of the implications for future development.


Emission Reduction Clean Development Mechanism Kyoto Protocol Coal Mine Methane Clean Development Mechanism Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Grubb
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tim Laing
    • 1
  • Thomas Counsell
    • 2
  • Catherine Willan
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Carbon TrustLondonUK

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