This paper describes the generation of temporally anchored infobox attribute data from the Wikipedia history of revisions. By mining (attribute, value) pairs from the revision history of the English Wikipedia we are able to collect a comprehensive knowledge base that contains data on how attributes change over time. When dealing with the Wikipedia edit history, vandalic and erroneous edits are a concern for data quality. We present a study of vandalism identification in Wikipedia edits that uses only features from the infoboxes, and show that we can obtain, on this dataset, an accuracy comparable to a state-of-the-art vandalism identification method that is based on the whole article. Finally, we discuss different characteristics of the extracted dataset, which we make available for further study.
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As of March 2012, there were more than 85,000 active contributors working on more than 21,000,000 articles in more than 280 languages. The English Wikipedia contained more than 3.9 million articles. Ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About.
Wikimedia Deutschland—Gesellschaft zur Förderung Freien Wissens e.V.
The corpus is freely available at http://www.uni-weimar.de/cms/medien/webis/research/corpora/pan-wvc-11.html.
Notice that the issue of detecting other kinds of incorrect data is out of the scope of this work; some lines of development that we are investigating to address this open research question are discussed in Sect. 5.
Wikipedia makes database downloads available, including those of the full edit history of every article. All text content is released under a double license: the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License (CC-BY-SA) and the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL). For details on the different download options, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Database_download.
Specifically, the download of the English Wikipedia with its full edit history that we have used for this research, and newer versions available later, is distributed at http://dumps.wikimedia.org/enwiki.
MediaWiki, Markup spec http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Markup_spec, retrieved February 1, 2012.
The number of edits skipped because of parse failures is negligible: 119.
Some other metadata is kept, see Sect. 4.1 for more details.
Removing, for instance, edits which textual content is too long or too short, or edits that were rapidly reverted.
A Wikipedia diff page shows the difference between two versions of a page.
There exists a file history for image files, but it is not immediately available from the diff page.
As of March, 2011, the total number of Wikipedia pages is over 3.9 million articles. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Statistics.
Observe that not all of them are valid infobox names, as many are in fact editors errors, or vandalism.
The high frequency of the “french commune” infobox might be surprising, but has a simple explanation. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in France, and can range from a large city to a small village. As of January 9, 2008, there were 36,781 communes in France, and through the collaborative effort of a group of editors, most of them have an article, following a common template that defines the specific “french commune” infobox. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communes_of_France and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_French_communes.Similar reasons make “settlement" the top frequency infobox.
A notable exception is volatility, which is defined in Stvilia et al. (2005) as the median revert time.
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The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Unions Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement number 257790; the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project Holopedia (TIN2010-21128-C02); and the Regional Government of Madrid MA2VICMR (S2009/TIC1542)
This work was partially done while the second author was visiting Google Switzerland GmbH.
Appendix: Manual rating instructions
Appendix: Manual rating instructions
Wikipedia is an on-line encyclopedia to which many users contribute editing the entries. Wikipedia entries sometimes contain one or several small boxes with structured data called Infoboxes. For example, the Wikipedia entry for United States has a small box at the right hand side containing the name of the country, its flag and seal, motto, anthem, capital, and other facts about the country. We’ll call each of these lines in the infobox attributes.
If you want to read more about Wikipedia Infoboxes, you can see this page.
Wikipedia keeps logs of all the edits done by each contributor during the past many years. This allows us to explore the past changes for each entry. For example, this page shows a particular edit that was done to the entry “Articles of Confederation". In this example, the contributor modified the value of the attribute “writer". This attribute is the one that is used in the infobox line specifying who the authors were. This particular contributor edited the value of the writer from just “Continental Congress" to a new value of an insulting nature. This is a clear case of vandalism. For the purposes of this evaluation, we consider that a contribution is vandalic if either:
It is adding insulting or obscene content.
It is plainly false.
If a page contained a correct value and a user replaces it with an incorrect value, we assume that the edit is vandalism. For example, look at this page. The value of the origin (birth place) of Lil Jon was changed from Montreal to Atlanta. The correct value for this attribute is Atlanta. You can click on the “Previous edit" link to see that Montreal was added in replacement of the correct value Atlanta. For these reasons, we’ll say that the page was initially correct, Montreal was added in a vandal edit, and the change in the shown page is fixing the vandalism by reverting the value to the previous correct value Atlanta.
You will be shown below the name of an entry, the time when it was changed, name of the attribute in the infobox, the old value of the attribute, and the new value of the attribute. The task is to reply to the questions below to identify possible cases of incorrect values or vandalic actions.
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Alfonseca, E., Garrido, G., Delort, JY. et al. WHAD: Wikipedia historical attributes data. Lang Resources & Evaluation 47, 1163–1190 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-013-9232-5
- Temporal data