Comorbid Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms Among Children with ADHD: The Influence of Parental Distress, Parenting Practices, and Child Routines

Abstract

Emotional/behavioral concerns are common among children with ADHD. Familial factors (e.g., parental adjustment, parenting behaviors) are linked to the presence of comorbid internalizing/externalizing symptoms among children with ADHD. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a model that includes multiple familial variables and their direct and indirect effects on child emotional and behavioral problems among children with ADHD. Participants included parents of children (6–12 years of age; M = 8.87, SD = 1.92) with a diagnosis of ADHD (N = 300). Participants completed measures of child emotional/behavioral concerns, parental distress, routines, and parenting behaviors. Path analyses revealed direct effects for parental distress, parent behavior and routines on child adjustment, after controlling for the other variables. A significant indirect relation between parental distress, routines, and externalizing behavior was observed. These findings highlight one specific path through which parental distress appears to influence specific behavioral concerns that are commonly observed in children with ADHD.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    American Psychological Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health disorders, 5th edn. APA, Arlington, VA

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Visser SN, Danielson ML, Bitsko RH, Kogan MD, Ghandour RM, Perou R, Blumberg SJ (2014) Trends in the parent-report of health care provider diagnosed and medicated ADHD: United States, 2003–2011. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 53:34–46.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Specner TJ, Aleardi M (2006) Comparing the effeicty of medication for ADHD using meta-analysis. Med Gen Med 8:4–23

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chronis AM, Chacko A, Fabiano GA, Wymbs BT, Pelham WE (2004) Enhancements to the behavioral parent training paradigm for families of children with ADHD: review and future directions. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 7:1–27. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:CCCFP.000020180.60808.a4

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bardach N, Coker T, Zima B, Murphy J, Knapp P, Richardson L, Edwall G, Mangione-Smith R (2014) Common and costly hospitalization for pediatric mental health disorders. Pediatrics 133:602–609. https://doi.org/10.1542/ped.2013-3165

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Jarrett MA, Ollendick TH (2008) A conceptual review of the comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anxiety: implications for future research and practice. Clin Psychol Rev 28:1266–1280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.05.004

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Armstrong D, Lycett K, Hiscock H, Care E, Sciberras E (2015) Longitudinal associations between internalizing and externalizing comorbidities and functional outcomes for children with ADHD. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 46:736–748. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0515-x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Theule J, Wiener J, Tannock R, Jenkins JM (2013) Parenting stress in families of children with ADHD: a meta-analysis. J Emot Behav Disord 21:3–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/1063426610387433

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Breaux R, Brown H, Harvey E (2017) Mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the early development of child ADHD and ODD symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol 45:443–456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10702-016-0213-1

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Chronis-Tuscano AM, O’Brien KA, Johnston C, Jones HA, Clarke TL, Raggi VL et al (2011) The relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training is mediated by change in negative parenting. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:1047–1057. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9518-2

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Murray C, Johnston C (2006) Parenting in mothers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 115:52–61. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.115.1.52

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Tsuang MT (1991) Evidence of familial association between attention deficit disorder and major affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:633–642. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810310051009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Barkley RA (1997) Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive function: Constructing a unified theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull 121:65–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Castellanos FX, Tannock R (2002) Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci 3:617–628. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn896

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Deault LC (2010) A systemic review of parenting in relation to the development of functional impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 41:168–192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0159-4

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    McCleary L (2002) Parenting adolescents with attention/deficit-hyperactivity disorder: analysis of the literature for social work practice. Health Soc Work 27:285–292. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/27.4.285

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Reader SK, Stewart LM, Johnson JH (2009) Assessing ADHD-related family stressors with the Disruptive Behavior Stress Inventory (DBSI): a replication and extension. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 16:148–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-008-9140-9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sonuga-Barke EJ, Daley D, Thompson M, Laver-Bradbury C, Weeks A (2001) Parent-based therapies for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A randomized, controlled trial with a community sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:402–408. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200104000-00008

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wells KC, Epstein JN, Hinshaw SP, Conners CK, Klaric J, Abikoff HB, Abramowitz A et al (2000) Parenting and family stress treatment outcomes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an empirical analysis in the MTA study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 28:543–553. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005131131159

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Locke LM, Prinz RJ (2002) Measurement of parental discipline and nurturance. Clin Psychol Rev 22:895–929. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00133-2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Johnston C, Mash EJ (2001) Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: review and recommendations for future research. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 4:183–207. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1017592030434

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Chronis AM, Lahey BB, Pelham WE, Williams SH, Baumann BL, Kipp H et al (2007) Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dev Psychol 43:70–82. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.70

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Goodman SH, Rouse MH, Connell AM, Broth MR, Hall CM, Heyward D (2011) Maternal depression and child psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 14:1–27. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0080-1

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Loeber R, Green SM, Lahey BB, Frick PJ, McBurnett K (2000) Findings on disruptive behavior disorders from the first decade of the Developmental Trends Study. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 3:37–60. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009567419190

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Thompson A, Hollis C, Dagger DR (2003) Authoritarian parenting attitudes a risk for conduct problems: results from a British national cohort study. Eur J Adolesc Psychiatry 12:84–91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-003-0324-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Gershoff ET (2002) Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: a meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychol Bull 128:539–579. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12038

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Gershoff ET, Grogan-Kaylor A (2016) Spanking and child outcomes: old controversies and new meta-analyses. J Fam Psychol 30:453–469. https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000191

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kochanska G (1995) Children’s temperament, mothers’ discipline, and security of attachment: multiple pathways to emerging internalization. Child Dev 66:3. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131937

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Lengua LJ, Kovacs EA (2005) Bidirectional associations between temperament and parenting and the prediction of adjustment problems in middle childhood. J Appl Dev Psychol 26:21–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2004.10.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Hawes DJ, Dadds MR, Forst A, Russell A (2013) Parenting practices and prospective levels of hyperactivity/inattention across early- and middle-childhood. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 35:273–282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-013-9341-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Bates JE, Pettit GS (2007) Temperament, parenting, and socialization. In: Grusec JE, Hastings PD (eds) Handbook of socialization: theory and research. Guilford Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Arsenio W, Ramos-Marcuse F (2014) Children’s moral emotions, narratives, and aggression: relations with maternal discipline and support. J Genet Psychol 175:258–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2014.982497

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Choe DE, Lane JD, Grabell AS, Olson SL (2013) Developmental precursors of young school-aged children’s hostile attribution bias. Dev Psychol 49:2245–2256. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032293

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Anderson CA, Hinshaw SP, Simmel C (1994) Mother-child relationships in ADHD and comparison boys: relationships with overt and covert externalizing behavior. J Abnorm Child Psychol 22:247–265. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02167903

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Breaux R, Harvey E (2019) A longitudinal study of the relation between family functioning and preschool ADHD symptoms. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 48:749–764. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1437737

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Mash EJ, Johnston C (1983) Parental perceptions of child behavior problems, parenting self-esteem, and mothers' reported stress in younger and older hyperactive and normal children. J Consult Clin Psychol 51:86–99. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.1.86

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Wells KC (2005) Family therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In: Lebow J (ed) Handbook of clinical family therapy. Wiley, Englewood

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Aunola K, Nurmi J (2005) The role of parenting styles in children’s problem behavior. Child Dev 76:1144–1159. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00840.x-i1

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Slagt M, Dubas JS, Dekovic M, van Aken MA (2016) Differences in sensitivity to parenting depending on child temperament: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull 142:1068–1110. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000061

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Lewis M (2000) Toward a development of psychopathology: models, definitions, and predictions. In: Sameroff AJ, Lewis M, Miller S (eds) Handbook of developmental psychopathology. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Sameroff AJ, Fiese BH (2000) Transactional regulation: the developmental ecology of early intervention. In: Shonkoff JP, Meisels SJ (eds) Handbook of early childhood intervention. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Sytsma S, Kelley M, Wymer J (2001) Development and initial validation of the Child Routines Inventory. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 23:241–251. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012727419873

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Reiss D (1989) The practicing and representing family. In: Sameroff AJ, Emde R (eds) Relationship disturbances in early childhood. Basic Books, New York

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Steinglass P, Bennett LA, Wolin SJ, Reiss D (1987) The alcoholic family. Basic Books, New York

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Sprunger LW, Boyce WT, Gaines JA (1985) Family infant congruence: routines and rhythmicity in family adaptations to a young infant. Child Dev 56:564–572. https://doi.org/10.2307/1129746

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Hadley W, Huner HL, Tolou-Shams M, Lescano C, Thompson A, Doneberg G, Project STYLE Study Group (2011) Monitoring challenges: a closer look at parental monitoring, maternal psychopathology, and adolescent sexual risk. J Fam Psychol 25:319–323. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023109

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Harvey E, Stoessel B, Herbert S (2011) Psychopathology and parenting practices of parents of preschool children with behavior problems. Parent Sci Pract 11:239–263. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295192.2011.613722

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Bridley A, Jordan SS (2012) Child routines moderate daily hassles and children’s psychological adjustment. Child Health Care 41:129–144. https://doi.org/10.1080/02739615.2012.657040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Hair EC, Moore KA, Garrett SB, Ling T, Cleveland K (2008) The continued importance of quality parent-adolescent relationships during late adolescence. J Res Adolesc 18:187–200. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2008.00556.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Harris AN, Stoppelbein L, Greening L, Becker SP, Luebbe A, Fite P (2013) Child routines and parental adjustment as correlates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 45:243–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0396-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Lanza HI, Drabkick DAG (2011) Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:83–94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9447-5

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    McWilliam R (2010) Assessing family needs with the family-based interview. In: McWilliam R (ed) Working with families of young children with special needs. Guilford Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Patterson GR (1982) Coercive family process. Castalia, Karkkila

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Schrepferman L, Snyder J (2002) Coercion: the link between treatment mechanisms in behavioral parent training and risk reduction in child antisocial behavior. Behav Ther 33:339–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(02)80032-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Wahler RG, Dumas JE (1987) Family factors in childhood psychology: toward a coercion-neglect model. In: Jacob T (ed) Family interaction and psychopathology: theories, methods, and findings. Plenum Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Adams LA, Rickert VI (1989) Reducing bedtime tantrums: comparison between positive routines and graduated extinction. Pediatrics 84:756–761

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Drabman RS, Creedon DL (1979) Beat the buzzer. Child Behav Ther 1:295–296

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Milan MA, Mitchell ZP, Berger MI, Pierson DF (1981) Positive routines: a rapid alternative to extinction for elimination of bedtime tantrum behavior. Child Behav Ther 3:13–25

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Sanders MR, Bor B, Dadds M (1984) Modifying bedtime disruptions in children using stimulus control and contingency management techniques. Behav Psychother 12:130–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Hessl D, Dyer-Friedman J, Glaser B, Wisbeck J, Barajas RB, Taylor A, Reiss AL (2001) The influence of environmental and genetic factors on behavior problems and autistic symptoms in boys and girls with Fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics 108:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.108.5.e88

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Milevsky A, Schlechter M, Netter S, Keehn D (2007) Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. J Child Fam Stud 16:39–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9066-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS (2007) Prevalence, recognition, and treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a national sample of US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:857–864. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.161.9.857

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2001) Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms and profiles. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth & Families, Burlington

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Biederman J, Spencer T, Lomedico A, Day H, Petty C, Farone S (2012) Deficient emotional self-regulation and pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a family risk analysis. Psychol Med 42:639–646. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711001644

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Henderson JA, Barry TD, Bader SH, Jordan SS (2011) The relation among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Res Autism Spectr Disorder 5:758–767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Rodger S, Umaibalan V (2011) The routines and rituals of families of typically developing children compared with families of children with autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study. Br J Occup Ther 74:20–26. https://doi.org/10.4276/030802211X12947686093567

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L (1974) The Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Behav Sci 19:1–15. https://doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830190102

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Deane FP, Leathern J, Spicer J (2011) Clinical norms, reliability and validity for the Hopkins Symptom Checklist—21. Aust J Psychol 44:21–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049539208260158

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    McRae EM, Stoppelbein L, O’Kelley SE, Fite P, Greening L (2018) Predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children with ASD: evaluation of a contextual model of parental factors. J Autism Dev Disord 48:1261–1271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3368-x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    McRae EM, Stoppelbein L, O’Kelley SE, Fite P, Greening L (2019) Predicting child behavior: a comparative analysis between autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Fam Stud 28:668–683. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1299-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Haugstvedt A, Wentzel-Larsen T, Rokne B, Graue M (2011) Perceived family burden and emotional distress: similarities and differences between mothers and fathers of children with type 1 diabetes in a population-based study. Ped Diabetes 12:107–114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00661.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Frick PJ (1991) The Alabama parenting questionnaire. Unpublished instrument, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL

  73. 73.

    Clerkin S, Marks D, Policaro K, Halperin J (2007) Psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire—Preschool Revision. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 36:19–28

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.

    Maguin E, Nochajski TH, DeWit DJ, Safyer A (2016) Examining the validity of the adapted Alabama Parenting Questionnaire—Parent Global Report Version. Psychol Assess 28:613–625. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000214

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Parent J, Forehand R, Dunbar JP, Watson KH, Reising MW, Seehus M, Compas BE (2014) Parent and adolescent reports of parenting when a parent has a history of depression: associations with observations of parenting. J Abnorm Child Psychol 42:173–183. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9777-1

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Muthén LK, Muthén, BO (1998–2011) Mplus user's guide, 6th edn. Muthén & Muthén, Los Angeles

  77. 77.

    Kline RB (2010) Principles and practice of structural equation modelling. Methodology in the social sciences, 3rd edn. The Guilford Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Baron RM, Kenny DA (1986) The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social-psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol 51:1173–1182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Hayes AF (2013) Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. Guilford Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Elgar FJ, Washbusch DA, Dadds MR, Sigvaldason N (2007) Development and validation of a short form of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. J Child Fam Stud 16:243–259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9082-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    King CA, Segal HG, Naylor M, Evans T (1993) Family functioning and suicidal behavior in adolescent inpatients with mood disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:1198–1206. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199311000-00013

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Sytsma-Jordan S (2003) Further validation of the Child Routines Inventory (CRI): Relationship to parenting practices, maternal distress, and child externalizing behavior. A Doctoral Dissertation

  83. 83.

    Doshi JA, Hodgkins P, Kahle J, Sikirica V, Cangelosi MJ, Setyawan J et al (2012) Economic impact of childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51:990–1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.07.008

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Pfiffner LJ, McBurnett K (2006) Family correlates of comorbid anxiety disorder in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol 34:725–735. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9060-9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Babinski DE, Waxmonsky JG, Pelham WE (2014) Treating parents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: the effects of behavioral parent training and acute stimulant medication treatment on parent-child interactions. J Abnorm Child Psychol 42:1129–1140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-014-9864-y

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Stevenson J, Langley K, Payton A, Worthington J, Ollier W, Thapar A (2005) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with reading disabilities: preliminary genetic findings on the involvement of the ADRA2A gene. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:1081–1088. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01533.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Sanner CM, Neece CL (2017) Parental distress and child behavior problems: parenting behaviors as mediators. J Child Fam Stud 27:591–601. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-017-0884-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Flouri E, Buchanan A (2002) The protective role of parental involvement in adolescent suicide. Crisis 23:17–22. https://doi.org/10.1027//0227-5910.23.1.17

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Rohner RP (1986) The warmth dimension: foundations of parental acceptance-rejection theory. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Chronis-Tuscano AM, Wang CH, Woods KE, Strickland J, Stein MA (2017) Parent ADHD and evidence-based treatment for their children: review and directions for future research. J Abnorm Child Psychol 45:501–517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-016-0238-5

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K (2006) Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:192–202. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000189134.97436.e2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Chacko A, Wymbs BT, Flammer-Rivera LM, Pelham WE, Walker KS, Arnold FW, Herbst L (2008) A pilot study of the feasibility and efficacy of the Strategies to Enhance Positive Parenting (STEPP) Program for single mothers of children with ADHD. J Atten Disord 12:270–280. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054707306119

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Khaleque A, Rohner RP (2002) Perceived parental acceptance- rejection and psychological adjustment: A meta-analysis of cross-cultural and intracultural studies. J Marriage Fam 64:54–64. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00054.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Michalcio SP, Solomon CR (2002) The relationship between older and newer parenting categories and child behavior. Am J Orthopsychiatry 72:401–414. https://doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.72.3.401

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Barros L, Goes AR, Pereira AI (2015) Parental self-regulation, emotional regulation, and temperament: implications for interventions. Stud Psychol 32:295–306. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-166X2015000200013

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Bandura A (1977) Social learning theory. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River

    Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Deater-Deckard K, Dodge KA (1997) Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited: nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychol Inquiry 8:161–175. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0803_1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Beauchaine TP, Gatzke-Kopp L, Head HK (2007) Polyvagal theory and developmental psychopathology: emotional and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence. Biol Psychol 74:174–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.08.008

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Kallweit C, Paucke M, Straub M, Exner C (2019) Adult ADHD: influence of physical activation, stimulation, and reward on cognitive performance and symptoms. J Atten Disord. https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054719845050

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Essau CA, Sasagawa S, Frick PJ (2006) Psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. J Child Fam Stud 15:597–616. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-006-9036-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Gross TJ, Fleming CB, Mason WA, Haggerty KP (2017) Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-9: longitudinal measurement invariance across parents and youth during the transition to high school. Assess 24:646–659. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191115620839

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Hinshaw SP (2002) Preadolescent girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. J Consult Clin Psychol 70:1086–1098. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.70.5.1086

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Bater LR, Sytsma-Jordan S (2016) Child routines and self-regulation serially mediate parenting practices and externalizing problems in preschool children. Child Youth Care Forum 46:243–259. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9377-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Drake KL, Ginsburg GS (2012) Family factors in the development, treatment, and prevention of childhood anxiety disorders. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 15:144–162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-011-0109-0

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laura Stoppelbein.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors do not have any financial disclosures at this time.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

McRae, E., Stoppelbein, L., O’Kelley, S. et al. Comorbid Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms Among Children with ADHD: The Influence of Parental Distress, Parenting Practices, and Child Routines. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-020-01019-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Routines
  • Parenting
  • ADHD
  • Emotional/behavioral problems