Maternal Responsiveness as a Predictor of Self-Regulation Development and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms Across Preschool Ages
Preschool-age “hot” executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms. A sample of 125 preschoolers and their families were seen at the ages of 4 and 5 years. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity was assessed via home observations, RRC by neuropsychological tasks, and ADHD symptoms by a structured clinical parent interview. Maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicted RRC development. The negative link between maternal responsiveness/sensitivity at 4 years and ADHD symptoms at 5 years was mediated by RRC performance at 5 years. Preschoolers showing ADHD symptoms combined with low RRC capacity in particular might benefit from responsive/sensitive parenting.
KeywordsMaternal responsiveness Parenting Preschool age Development of self-regulation Delay of gratification Delay aversion Attention deficits hyperactivity symtoms
The research for this article was funded by a grant from the University Medical Centre Giessen-Marburg and by grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG, Be2573/3-1,2) to Prof Dr. Katja Becker and Prof. Dr. Ursula Pauli-Pott.
- 2.Rothbart MK, Bates JE (2006) Temperament. In: Eisenberg N, Damon W, Lerner RM (eds) Handbook of child psychology, vol 3. Social, emotional, and personality development. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 105–176Google Scholar
- 9.Zelazo PD, Carlson SM (2012) Hot and cool executive function in childhood and adolescence: development and plasticity. Child Dev Perspect 6(4):354–360Google Scholar
- 25.Chang H, Olson SL, Sameroff AJ, Sexton HR (2011) Child effortful control as a mediator of parenting practices on externalizing behavior: evidence for a sex-differentiated pathway across the transition from preschool to school. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(1):71–81CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 28.Olson SL, Tardif TZ, Miller A, Felt B, Grabell AS, Kessler D, Wang L, Karasawa M, Hirabayashi H (2011) Inhibitory control and harsh discipline as predictors of externalizing problems in young children: a comparative study of U.S., Chinese, and Japanese preschoolers. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39(8):1163–1175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Döpfner M, Görtz-Dorten A, Lehmkuhl G (2008) DISYPS-II Diagnostik-System für psychische Störungen nach ICD-10 und DSM-IV für Kinder und Jugendliche - II. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
- 35.Kochanska G (2009) Family study. Effortful control batteries. University of Iowa, Iowa CityGoogle Scholar
- 47.Daley D (2010) Preschool-parent account of child symptoms (Pre-Pacs). University of Southampton, SouthamptonGoogle Scholar
- 49.Breuer D, Dopfner M (2008) Development of a questionnaire for the assessment of attention-deficit-/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers by parents and/or teacher ratings. Z Entwickl Padagogis 40(1):40–48Google Scholar
- 50.Petermann F (ed) (2009) WPPSI-III, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III; German Version. Pearson Assessment & Information GmbH, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
- 51.Christiansen H, Kis B, Hirsch O, Matthies S, Hebebrand J, Uekermann J, Abdel-Hamid M, Kraemer M, Wiltfang J, Graf E, Colla M, Sobanski E, Alm B, Rosler M, Jacob C, Jans T, Huss M, Schimmelmann BG, Philipsen A (2012) German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Eur Psychiatry 27(5):321–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 52.Rösler M, Retz-Junginger P, Retz W, Stieglitz R-D (2008) HASE Homburger ADHS-Skalen für Erwachsene. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
- 54.Döpfner M, Schmeck K, Berner W, Lehmkuhl G, Poustka F (1994) Reliabilität und Validität der Child-Behavior-Checklist. Z Kinder- und Jugendpsychiat Psychother 22(3):189–205Google Scholar