Child Psychiatry and Human Development

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 359–381 | Cite as

Gender Appropriateness of Symptom Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder



We examined the gender appropriateness of the DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). In Study 1, 100 mothers (35 of children with and 65 of children without ADHD) rated how gender-typical and problematic they saw DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and CD; feminine descriptions of ADHD, ODD, and CD behaviors that we created; and relationally and overtly aggressive behaviors. Mothers rated the DSM-IV symptoms and overt aggression as boy-descriptive, and the feminine items that we created and relational aggression as girl-descriptive. Mothers saw the feminine items as less problematic than the masculine items. In Study 2, for 80 girls (40 with and 40 without ADHD), mothers’ ratings on the feminine items were related to the corresponding DSM-IV symptoms, and to general psychopathology and impairment. Most correlations were significant and support the construct validity of the feminine items.


ADHD oppositional-defiant disorder conduct disorder gender 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Businesss Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.University of BritishColumbia

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