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Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 38, Issue 4, pp 783–795 | Cite as

Interactions Between the Canonical WNT/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma on Neuroinflammation, Demyelination, and Remyelination in Multiple Sclerosis

  • Alexandre Vallée
  • Jean-Noël Vallée
  • Rémy Guillevin
  • Yves Lecarpentier
Review Paper

Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is marked by neuroinflammation and demyelination with loss of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. The immune response is regulated by WNT/beta-catenin pathway in MS. Activated NF-kappaB, a major effector of neuroinflammation, and upregulated canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway positively regulate each other. Demyelinating events present an upregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, whereas proper myelinating phases show a downregulation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway essential for the promotion of oligodendrocytes precursors cells proliferation and differentiation. The activation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway results in differentiation failure and impairment in remyelination. However, PI3K/Akt pathway and TCF7L2, two downstream targets of WNT/beta-catenin pathway, are upregulated and promote proper remyelination. The interactions of these signaling pathways remain unclear. PPAR gamma activation can inhibit NF-kappaB, and can also downregulate the WNT/beta-catenin pathway. PPAR gamma and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway act in an opposite manner. PPAR gamma agonists appear as a promising treatment for the inhibition of demyelination and the promotion of proper remyelination through the control of both NF-kappaB activity and canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway.

Keywords

Canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway PPAR gamma Multiple sclerosis PI3K/Akt pathway Demyelination Remyelination Inflammation TCF7L2 

Abbreviations

APC

Adenomatous polyposis coli

DSH

Disheveled

FZD

Frizzled

GSK-3beta

Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta

LRP 5/6

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6

PI3K-Akt

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B

PPAR gamma

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

TCF/LEF

T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Dr Christophe Locher, President of the “Fédération de la Recherche Clinique du Grand Hôpital de l’Est Francilien,” and Mr. Vincent Gobert, Administrative Manager of the Clinical Research Center, Meaux Hospital, Meaux, France, for their valuable support in making the necessary research facilities available for this study.

Author Contributions

All authors listed, have made substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. AV, JNV, RG, and YL have contributed to this review.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial, financial relationship, or non-financial interest that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Experimental and Clinical Neurosciences Laboratory, INSERM U1084University of PoitiersPoitiersFrance
  2. 2.Laboratory of Mathematics and Applications (LMA), UMR CNRS 7348University of PoitiersPoitiersFrance
  3. 3.CHU Amiens Picardie, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV)AmiensFrance
  4. 4.DACTIM, UMR CNRS 7348University of Poitiers et CHU de PoitiersPoitiersFrance
  5. 5.Centre de Recherche CliniqueGrand Hôpital de l’Est Francilien (GHEF)MeauxFrance

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