The Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Oxysophocarpine on Pilocarpine-Induced Convulsions in Adult Male Mice
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Epilepsy is one of the prevalent and major neurological disorders, and approximately one-third of the individuals with epilepsy experience seizures that do not respond well to available medications. We investigated whether oxysophocarpine (OSC) had anticonvulsant and neuroprotective property in the pilocarpine (PILO)-treated mice. Thirty minutes prior to the PILO injection, the mice were administrated with OSC (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) once. Seizures and electroencephalography (EEG) were observed, and then the mice were killed for Nissl and Fluoro-jade B (FJB) staining. The oxidative stress was measured at 24 h after convulsion. Western blot analysis was used to examine the expressions of the Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3. In this study, we found that pretreatment with OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) significantly delayed the onset of the first convulsion and status epilepticus (SE) and reduced the incidence of SE and mortality. Analysis of EEG recordings revealed that OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) significantly reduced epileptiform discharges. Furthermore, Nissl and FJB staining showed that OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) attenuated the neuronal cell loss and degeneration in hippocampus. In addition, OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) attenuated the changes in the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and strengthened glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis showed that OSC (40, 80 mg/kg) significantly decreased the expressions of Bax, Caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2. Collectively, the findings of this study indicated that OSC exerted anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects on PILO-treated mice. The beneficial effects should encourage further studies to investigate OSC as an adjuvant in epilepsy, both to prevent seizures and to protect neurons in brain.
KeywordsPilocarpine Convulsion Oxysophocarpine Anticonvulsant Neuroprotection Neuronal damage
This study was supported by the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Science and Technology Support Program (2015BAK45B01) and the Ningxia medical university scientific research project (XY201409 and XY201514).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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