Possible Contribution of Proteins of Bcl-2 Family in Neuronal Death Following Transient Global Brain Ischemia
- 498 Downloads
Proteins of Bcl-2 family are crucial regulators of intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis that is implicated among the mechanisms of ischemic neuronal death. Initiation of mitochondrial apoptosis depends on changes of equilibrium between anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family as well as on translocation of pro-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 family to mitochondria. The aim of this work was to study the effect of transient global brain ischemia on expression and intracellular distribution of proteins of Bcl-2 family in relation to the ischemia-induced changes of ERK and Akt kinase pathways as well as disturbances in ubiquitin proteasome system. Using four vessel occlusion model of transient global brain ischemia, we have shown that both ischemia in duration of 15 min and the same ischemia followed by 1, 3, 24, and 72 h of reperfusion did not affect the levels of either pro-apoptotic (Bad, PUMA, Bim, Bax, Noxa) or anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Mcl-1) proteins of Bcl-2 family in total cell extracts from rat hippocampus. However, significantly elevated level of Bad protein in the mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampus was observed already 1 h after ischemia and remained elevated 3 and 24 h after ischemia. We did not observe significant changes of the levels of Puma, Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl in the mitochondria after ischemia and ischemia followed by reperfusion. Our results might indicate possible involvement of Bad translocation to mitochondria in the mechanisms of neuronal death following transient global brain ischemia.
KeywordsGlobal brain ischemia Bcl-2 protein family Mitochondrial apoptosis Ubiquitin–proteasome system Akt kinase Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase
Transient global brain ischemia
- Cox I
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I
Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
This work was supported by the Agency for Support of Science and Development of Slovak Republic (Grant APVV-0245-11 to P.R.).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Cao G, Luo Y, Nagayama T, Pei W, Stetler RA, Graham SH, Chen J (2002) Cloning and characterization of rat caspase-9: implications for a role in mediating caspase-3 activation and hippocampal cell death after transient cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:534–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- García L, Burda J, Hrehorovská M, Burda R, Martín ME, Salinas M (2004) Ischaemic preconditioning in the rat brain: effect on the activity of several initiation factors, Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylation, and GRP78 and GADD34 expression. J Neurochem 88:136–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hetz C, Vitte PA, Bombrun A, Rostovtseva TK, Montessuit S, Hiver A, Schwarz MK, Church DJ, Korsmeyer SJ, Martinou JC, Antonsson B (2005) Bax channel inhibitors prevent mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and protect neurons in a model of global brain ischemia. J Biol Chem 280:42960–42970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Inta I, Paxian S, Maegele I, Zhang W, Pizzi M, Spano P, Sarnico I, Muhammad S, Herrmann O, Inta D, Baumann B, Liou HC, Schmid RM, Schwaninger M (2006) Bim and Noxa are candidates to mediate the deleterious effect of the NF-kappa B subunit RelA in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci 26:12896–12903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Krajewski S, Bodrug S, Krajewska M, Shabaik A, Gascoyne R, Berean K, Reed JC (1995b) Immunohistochemical analysis of Mcl-1 protein in human tissues. Differential regulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 protein production suggests a unique role for Mcl-1 in control of programmed cell death in vivo. Am J Pathol 146:1309–1319PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyawaki T, Mashiko T, Ofengeim D, Flannery RJ, Noh KM, Fujisawa S, Bonanni L, Bennett MV, Zukin RS, Jonas EA (2008) Ischemic preconditioning blocks BAD translocation, Bcl-xL cleavage, and large channel activity in mitochondria of postischemic hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:4892–4897PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sugawara T, Fujimura M, Morita-Fujimura Y, Kawase M, Chan PH (1999) Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c corresponds to the selective vulnerability of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats after transient global cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci 19:1–6Google Scholar
- Tsuchiya T, Bonner HP, Engel T, Woods I, Matsushima S, Ward MW, Taki W, Henshall DC, Concannon CG, Prehn JH (2011) Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only proteins Puma and Bim mediate the vulnerability of CA1 hippocampal neurons to proteasome inhibition in vivo. Eur J Neurosci 33:401–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar