Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 1183–1197 | Cite as

Expression of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Mouse Neocortex and Posterior Piriform Cortices During Postnatal Development

  • Wei Zhang
  • Lingling Li
  • Jiutao Wang
  • Lei An
  • Xinde Hu
  • Jiongfang Xie
  • Runchuan Yan
  • Shulin Chen
  • Shanting Zhao
Original Research


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in a vast array of cellular and biological processes. Abnormal expression of MIF has been implicated in many neurological diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s Disease, stroke, and neuropathic pain. However, the expression patterns of mif transcript and MIF protein from the early postnatal period through adulthood in the mouse brain are still poorly understood. We therefore investigated the temporal and spatial expression of MIF in the mouse neocortex during postnatal development in detail and partially in posterior piriform cortices (pPC). As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), mif transcript gradually increased during development, with the highest level noted at postnatal day 30 (P30) followed by a sharp decline at P75. In contrast, Western blotting results showed that MIF increased constantly from P7 to P75. The highest level of MIF was at P75, while the lowest level of MIF was at P7. Immunofluorescence histochemistry revealed that MIF-immunoreactive (ir) cells were within the entire depth of the developed neocortex, and MIF was heterogeneously distributed among cortical cells, especially at P7, P14, P30, and P75; MIF was abundant in the pyramidal layer within pPC. Double immunostaining showed that all the mature neurons were MIF-ir and all the intensely stained MIF-ir cells were parvalbumin positive (Pv +) at adult. Moreover, it was demonstrated that MIF protein localized in the perikaryon, processes, presynaptic structures, and the nucleus in neurons. Taken together, the developmentally regulated expression and the subcellular localization of MIF should form a platform for an analysis of MIF neurodevelopmental biology and MIF-related nerve diseases.


MIF Neocortex pPC Subcellular localization Postnatal development 



This work was supported by National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No.2011AA10A208) and Foundation for Special Talent of NWSUAF (No.Z111021101).

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Zhang
    • 1
  • Lingling Li
    • 1
  • Jiutao Wang
    • 1
  • Lei An
    • 1
  • Xinde Hu
    • 1
  • Jiongfang Xie
    • 1
  • Runchuan Yan
    • 1
  • Shulin Chen
    • 1
  • Shanting Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingPeople’s Republic of China

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