Association of SNAREs and Calcium Channels with the Borders of Cytoskeletal Cages Organizes the Secretory Machinery in Chromaffin Cells
In chromaffin cells, SNARE proteins, forming the basic exocytotic machinery are present in membrane clusters of 500–600 nm in diameter. These microdomains containing both SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 are dynamic and the expression of altered forms of SNAREs modifies not only their motion but also the mobility of the associated granules. It is also clear that SNARE microdomain location defines the place for individual vesicle fusion and that the alteration of cluster dynamics affects the fusion process itself. Interestingly, these SNARE patches colocalize with the borders of F-actin cages forming the cytoskeletal cortical network, and these borders also contain clusters of L- and P/Q type calcium channels. The organization of the secretory machinery in association with the borders of cytoskeletal cages seems to be an effective way to promote fast coupling between calcium entry and catecholamine release as demonstrated with the use of mathematical secretory models.
KeywordsChromaffin cells SNAREs Calcium channels Cytoskeleton Exocytosis Active sites
This work was supported by grants from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN, Fondos FEDER: BFU2008-02154/BFI), and the Generalitat Valenciana (GRUPOS03/040 and ACOMP09/036). CJT-H was recipient of and FPU fellowship.
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