The Potential of the Brain: Plasticity Implications for De-Differentiation of Mature Astrocytes
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been identified for many years, mainly based on their functional properties including extensive self-renewal and multi-differentiation potential (Reynolds and Weiss 1992). NSCs express many stem cell proteins such as nestin, SOX2, SSEA1, and CD133 et al., while confident markers that can specifically recognize these cells are lacking. It has long been suggested that GFAP-positive cells in the neurogenic area, subventricular zone (SVZ), are NSCs (Doetsch et al. 1999; Doetsch 2003b; Laywell et al. 2000; Sanai et al. 2004; Merkle and Alvarez-Buylla 2006), and one type of NSCs in subgranular zone (SGZ) is GFAP positive (Garcia et al. 2004). Recent studies focusing on micro-niche of SVZ NSCs further strengthened this idea, which implied GFAP cells in SVZ were genuine NSCs whose maintenance might depend on a complicated microenvironment (Doetsch 2003a; Shen et al. 2008; Tavazoie et al. 2008; Mirzadeh et al. 2008). These studies did not rule out the possibility...
KeywordsSpinal Cord Injury Neural Precursor Nestin Expression Mature Astrocyte Brain Tumor Stem Cell
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