Evaluation of cellulose paper degradation irradiated by an electron beam for conservation treatment

Abstract

In this study, we investigate the chemical, physical and optical properties of cellulose paper irradiated by an electron beam for disinfection. Cellulose chain scission and oxidation induced by radiation increased considerably at 25 kGy irradiation, whereas folding endurance, morphology, and crystallinity did not undergo significant changes. The cellulose chain scission rate of paper irradiated under air-dried and wet conditions showed no difference; however, cellulose oxidation increased to a higher degree in paper irradiated under wet conditions than under air-dried conditions. Electron beam irradiation did not significantly affect changes in paper color, which is associated with oxidation. However, when irradiated papers were aged, the color difference increased according to the irradiation dose, as the oxidized functional groups of cellulose can act as a trigger for color change. A linear relationship between the cellulose chain scission rate and irradiation dose was found; thus, the cellulose chain scission rate can be predicted for a specific dose. The degree of polymerization was calculated from the predicted cellulose chain scission rate using the Ekenstam equation. According to the prediction, the degree of polymerization decreased to 74% at a dose of 5 kGy, a suitable dose for paper disinfection. In the low-dose range, electron beam irradiation did not adversely affect the physical properties of paper, but significant changes occurred in both the chemical and optical properties of paper. Thus, electron beam irradiation may be of use in disinfecting severely degraded paper due to biological factors; however, the irradiation process diminishes paper permanence.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. Adamo M, Brizzi M, Magaudda G, Martinelli G, Plossi-Zappalà RF, Savagnone F (2001) Gamma radiation treatment of paper in different environmental conditions: chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. Restaur 22:107–131. https://doi.org/10.1515/REST.2001.107

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adamo AM, Giovannotti M, Magaudda G, Plossizappala M, Rocchetti F, Rossi G (1998) Effect of gamma rays on pure cellulose paper as a model for the study of a treatment of “biological recovery” of biodeteriorated books. Restaur 19:41–59. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest.1998.19.1.41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Adamo M, Magaudda G, Tata A (2004) Radiation technology for cultural heritage restoration. Restaur 25:159–170. https://doi.org/10.1515/REST.2004.159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ahn K, Zaccaron S, Zwirchmayr NS, Hettegger H, Hofinger A, Bacher M, Henniges U, Hosoya T, Potthast A, Rosenau T (2019) Yellowing and brightness reversion of celluloses: CO or COOH, who is the culprit? Cellulose 26:429–444. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-2200-x

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Area MC, Calvo AM, Felissia FE, Docters A, Miranda MV (2014) Influence of dose and dose rate on the physical properties of commercial papers commonly used in libraries and archives. RadiatPhysChem 96:217–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2013.10.004

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Belyakova LA (1960) Gamma-irradiation as a means of disinfecting books against spores of mould fungi. Microbiology 29:762–765

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bouchard J, Méthot M, Jordan B (2006) The effects of ionizing radiation on the cellulose of woodfree paper. Cellulose 13:601–610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-005-9033-0

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bratu E, Moise IV, Cutrubinis M, Negut DC, Virgolici M (2009) Archives decontamination by gamma irradiation. Nukleonika 54:77–84

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Calvini P, Santucci L (1978–1979) Alcuni dati sugli effetti dell’irradiazione gamma sulla carta. Bollettino Dell’instituto Centrale per la Patologia del Libro 35:3–10

  10. Chmielewska-Śmietanko D, Gryczka U, Migdal W, Kopeć K (2018) Electron beam for preservation of biodeteriorated cultural heritage paper-based objects. RadiatPhysChem 143:89–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2017.07.008

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Choi JI, Chung YJ, Kang DI, Lee KS, Lee JW (2012) Effect of radiation on disinfection and mechanical properties of Korean traditional paper, Hanji. RadiatPhysChem 81:1051–1054. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2011.11.019

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Clough RL (2001) High-energy radiation and polymers: a review of commercial processes and emerging applications. NuclInstrum Method Phys Res B 185:8–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-583X(01)00966-1

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. D’Almeida MLO, Barbosa PdSM, Fernando M, Boaratti G, Borrely SI (2009) Radiation effects on the integrity of paper. RadiatPhysChem 78:489–492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2009.03.032

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Drábková K, Ďurovič M, Kučerová I (2018) Influence of gamma radiation on properties of paper and textile fibres during disinfection. RadiatPhysChem 152:75–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2018.07.023

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Driscoll M, Stipanovic A, Winter W, Cheng K, Manning M, Spiese J, Galloway RA, Cleland MR (2009) Electron beam irradiation of cellulose. RadiatPhysChem 78:539–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2009.03.080

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Emsley AM, Stevens GC (1994) Kinetics and mechanisms of the low-temperature degradation of cellulose. Cellulose 1:26–56

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. French AD (2014) Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs. Cellulose 21:885–896. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-013-0030-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Hagg WR, Yao CCD (1992) Rate constants for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with several drinking water contaminants. Environ SciTechnol 26:1005–1013. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00029a021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Henniges U, Hasani M, Potthast A, Westman G, Rosenau T (2013) Electron beam irradiation of cellulosic materials-opportunities and limitations. Materials 6:1584–1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6051584

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Henniges U, Okubayashi S, Rosenau T, Potthast A (2012) Irradiation of cellulosic pulps: understanding its impact on cellulose oxidation. Biomacromolecules 13:4171–4178. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm3014457

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Iller E, Kukielka A, Stupinska H, Mikolajczyk W (2002) Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives. RadiatPhysChem 63:253–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-806X(01)00646-6

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Imamura R, Ueno T, Murakami K (1972) Depolymerization of cellulose by electron beam irradiation. Bull InstChem Rese Kyoto Univ 50:51–63

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Jeong M-J, Kang KY, Bacher M, Kim HJ, Jo BM, Potthast A (2014) Deterioration of ancient cellulose paper, Hanji: evaluation of paper permanence. Cellulose 21:4621–4632. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0455-4

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Jeong M-J, Lee S, Yang BS, Potthast A, Kang KY (2019) Cellulose degradation by calcium thiocyanate. Polymers. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091494

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Ju X, Bowden M, Brown EE, Zhang X (2015) An improved X-ray diffraction method for cellulose crystallinity measurement. CarbohydrPolym 123:476–481. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11091494

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Kang DI (2009) The stability appraisement on cultural property material with the replacing fumigation gas of methyl bromide. J ConservSci 25:283–291

    Google Scholar 

  27. Khan F, Ahmad SR, Kronfli E (2006) γ-Radiation induced changes in the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulose. Biomacromolecules 7:2303–2309. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm060168y

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Kim JK, Song BS, Kim JH, Park JH, Byun EB, Lee JW (2013) Sterilization characteristics on ionizing irradiation and its industrial application. J Korean Musculoskelet Tissue Transplant Soc 13:49–57

    Google Scholar 

  29. Morin FG, Jordan BD, Marchessault RH (2004) High-energy radiation-induced changes in the crystal morphology of cellulose. Macromolecules 37:2668–2670. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma030528z

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Phillips GO, Arthur JC Jr (1985) Effects of high-energy radiation on physical and chemical properties of purified fibrous cellulose. In: Nevell TP, Zeronian SH (eds) Cellulose chemistry and its Applications. Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, pp 290–311

    Google Scholar 

  31. Röhrling J, Potthast A, Rosenau T, Lange T, Borgards A, Sixta H, Kosma P (2002) A novel method for the determination of carbonyl groups in cellulosics by fluorescence labeling. 2. Valid ApplBiomacromol 3:969–975. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm020030p

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Sequeira SO, Cabrita EJ, Macedo MF (2014) Fungal biodeterioration of paper: how are paper and book conservators dealing with it? An international survey. Restaur 35:181–199. https://doi.org/10.1515/rest-2014-0005

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Sharma G, Wu W, Dalal EN (2005) The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations. Color Res Appl 30:21–30. https://doi.org/10.1002/col.20070

  34. Yang G, Zhang Y, Wei M, Shao H, Hu X (2010) Influence of γ-ray radiation on the structure and properties of paper grade bamboo pulp. CarbohydrPolym 81:114–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.02.003

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by research funds for newly appointed professors of Jeonbuk National University in 2017; and the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2016R1D1A1B03933947).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Formal analysis: YH, MJJ, HJP and AP; Investigation: YH and MJJ; Data curation: YH and MJJ; Writing—original draft: YH; Writing—review and editing: MJJ; Supervision: MJJ.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Myung-Joon Jeong.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hwang, Y., Park, HJ., Potthast, A. et al. Evaluation of cellulose paper degradation irradiated by an electron beam for conservation treatment. Cellulose 28, 1071–1083 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03604-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Electron beam
  • Paper conservation
  • Paper disinfection
  • Cellulose degradation
  • Cellulose chain scission
  • Cellulose oxidation