, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 4193–4198 | Cite as

Synergistic effects of enzyme pretreatment for hemicellulose separation from paper-grade pulp in ionic liquid/water

  • Xiaojuan Ma
  • Hai Huang
  • Fang Huang
  • Yunduo Long
  • Shilin Cao
  • Lihui Chen
  • Liulian Huang
  • Yonghao Ni
Original Paper


Herein, we studied the effects of pretreatment with glucanase (G), xylanase (X), and their combinations [G/X mixtures or sequential addition (G–X and X–G)] on the efficiency of ionic liquid/water (IL/w)—promoted extraction of hemicelluloses from paper-grade pulp. Mild G pretreatment effectively increased the efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulose removal, whereas severe G pretreatment resulted in high glucose loss and low selectivity. Under optimized conditions, G and X pretreatments achieved similar removal efficiencies, especially in IL/w systems with high water content (25 and 20%), whereas the former was inferior to the latter at low water content (15%). Simultaneous G/X treatment achieved more efficient and selective hemicellulose removal than sequential G–X and X–G treatments, with the former sequence outperforming the latter. Finally, sequential extraction with IL/w-20 and IL/w-15 allowed extremely effective hemicellulose removal, decreasing the xylose content of pulp to 1.5%.

Graphical Abstract


Glucanase Xylanase Ionic liquid/water extraction Hemicellulose separation Chemical pulp 



The authors acknowledge the support from the Canada Research Chairs Program, National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31500488 and 31770632), Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (Grant Nos. 2016J01089 and 2016H6004).


  1. Christov LP, Prior BA (1993) Xylan removal from dissolving pulp using enzymes of Aureobasidium pullulans. Biotechnol Lett 15:1269–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Christov LP, Prior BA (1994) Enzymatic prebleaching of sulphite pulps. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:492–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Christov LP, Szakacs G, Rele MV, Balakrishnan H (1999) Screening of cellulase-free fungal xylanases and evaluation of their performance on sulfite dissolving pulp. Biotechnol Tech 13:313–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christov L, Biely P, Kalogeris E, Christakopoulos P, Prior BA, Bhat MK (2000) Effects of purified endo-β-1,4-xylanases of family 10 and 11 and acetyl xylan esterases on eucalypt sulfite dissolving pulp. J Biotechnol 83:231–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dahlman O, Jacobs A, Sjöberg J (2003) Molecular properties of hemicelluloses located in the surface and inner layers of hardwood and softwood pulps. Cellulose 10:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Duan C, Verma S, Li J, Ma X, Ni Y (2016) Combination of mechanical, alkaline and enzymatic treatments to upgrade paper-grade pulp to dissolving pulp with high reactivity. Bioresour Technol 200:458–463CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Froschauer C, Hummel M, Iakovlev M, Roselli A, Schottenberger H, Sixta H (2013) Separation of hemicellulose and cellulose from wood pulp by means of ionic liquid/cosolvent systems. Biomacromol 14:1741–1750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gübitz GM, Lischnig T, Stebbing D, Saddler JN (1997) Enzymatic removal of hemicellulose from dissolving pulps. Biotechnol Lett 19:491–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hakala TK, Liitiä T, Suurnäkki A (2013) Enzyme-aided alkaline extraction of oligosaccharides and polymeric xylan from hardwood kraft pulp. Carbohyd Polym 93:102–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Henriksson G, Christiernin M, Agnemo R (2005) Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 32:211–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ibarra D, Köpcke V, Larsson PT, Jääskeläinen A, Ek M (2010) Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper grade pulp to dissolving grade pulp. Bioresour Technol 101:7416–7423CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Janzon R, Puls J, Saake B (2008a) Upgrading of paper grade pulps to dissolving pulps by nitren extraction: properties of nitren extracted xylans in comparison to NaOH and KOH extracted xylans. Cellulose 15:161–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Janzon R, Puls J, Bohn A, Potthast A, Saake B (2008b) Upgrading of paper grade pulps to dissolving pulps by nitren extraction: yield, molecular and supramolecular structure of nitren extracted pulps. Cellulose 15:739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jia L, Goncalves GAL, Takasugi Y, Mori Y, Noda S, Tanaka T, Ichinose H, Noriho K (2015) Effect of pretreatment methods on the synergism of cellulase and xylanase during the hydrolysis of bagasse. Bioresour Technol 185:158–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuzmina O, Sashina E, Troshenkowa S, Wawro D (2010) Dissolved state of cellulose in ionic liquids—the impact of water. Fibers Text East Eur 18:32–37Google Scholar
  16. Ma X, Long Y, Duan C, Lin X, Cao S, Chen L, Huang L, Ni Y (2017) Facilitate hemicelluloses separation from chemical pulp in ionic liquid/water by xylanase pretreatment. Ind Crops Prod 109:459–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miao Q, Tian C, Chen L, Huang L, Zheng L, Ni Y (2015) Combined mechanical and enzymatic treatments for improving the Fock reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. Cellulose 22:803–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roselli A, Hummel M, Monshizadeh A, Maloney T, Sixta H (2014) Ionic liquid extraction method for upgrading eucalyptus kraft pulp to high purity dissolving pulp. Cellulose 21:3655–3666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sixta H, Iakovlev M, Testova L, Roselli A, Hummel M, Borrega M, van Heiningen A, Froschauer C, Schottenberger H (2013) Novel concepts of dissolving pulp production. Cellulose 20:1547–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sluiter A, Hames B, Ruiz R, Scarlata C, Sluiter J, Templeton D, Crocker D (2008) Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass. LAP-002 NREL analytical procedure National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, COGoogle Scholar
  21. Stepan AM, Michud A, Hellstén S, Hummel M, Sixta H (2016) IONCELL-P&F: pulp fractionation and fiber spinning with ionic liquids. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:8225–8233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Suurnäkki A, Heijnesson A, Buchert J, Tenkanen M, Viikari L, Westermark U (1996) Location of xylanase and mannanase action in kraft fibers. J Pulp Pap Sci 22:78–83Google Scholar
  23. Tian C, Zheng L, Miao Q, Cao C, Ni Y (2014) Improving the reactivity of kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by mechanical treatments. Cellulose 21:3647–3654CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials EngineeringFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhou CityChina
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Limerick Pulp and Paper CentreUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

Personalised recommendations