, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 2151–2189 | Cite as

Advances in cellulose nanomaterials

  • Hanieh Kargarzadeh
  • Marcos Mariano
  • Deepu Gopakumar
  • Ishak Ahmad
  • Sabu Thomas
  • Alain Dufresne
  • Jin Huang
  • Ning Lin
Review Paper


Research on nanocellulose has significantly increased over the past few decades, owing to the various attractive characteristics of this material, such as renewability, widespread availability, low density, excellent mechanical properties, economic value, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Nanocellulose categorized into two main types, namely cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). In this review, we present the recent advances made in the production of CNFs and CNCs. In addition to the conventional mechanical and chemical treatments used to prepare CNFs and CNCs, respectively, other promising techniques as well as pretreatment processes have been also proposed in recent times, in an effort to design an economically efficient and eco-friendly production route for nanocellulose. Further, while the hydrophilic nature of nanocellulose limits its use in polymeric matrices and in some industrial applications, the large number of hydroxyl groups on the surface of nanocellulose provides a suitable platform for various kinds of modification treatments. The various chemical and physical surface treatment procedures reported for nanocellulose have been reviewed in this paper. Finally, in this review, we summarize the life cycle assessment studies conducted so far on nanocellulose, which quantify the environmental impact of nanocellulose products. The current paper is a comprehensive review of the recent literature on nanostructured cellulose.


Cellulose nanofibril Cellulose nanocrystal Surface modification Life cycle assessment Production technique 



The authors, Ishak Ahmad and Hanieh Kargarzadeh, would like to thank the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia (MOHE) for providing Research Grants, GUP-2016-009 and DIP-2016-026 respectively, and also of the National Science Centre, Poland on the basis of the Decision Number 2016/23/B/ST8/03509 to make this research possible.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Molecular and Macromolecular Studies, Polish Academy of SciencesLodzPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Polymer Research Center (PORCE)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia
  3. 3.Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory (LNNano), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM)CampinasBrazil
  4. 4.Institute of ChemistryUniversidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Polymer Science and EngineeringMahatma Gandhi UniversityKottayamIndia
  6. 6.University Grenoble Alpes, LGP2GrenobleFrance
  7. 7.CNRS, LGP2GrenobleFrance
  8. 8.School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life SciencesWuhan University of TechnologyWuhanChina
  9. 9.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina

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