Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 377–389 | Cite as

Near-infrared and visible dual emissive transparent nanopaper based on Yb(III)–carbon quantum dots grafted oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose for anti-counterfeiting applications

Original Paper
  • 394 Downloads

Abstract

We report a novel near-infrared (NIR) and visible dual emissive transparent Yb3+-nanopaper, which is produced from Yb3+-CQDs grafted oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (Yb3+-CQDs-ONFC) using a press-controlled extrusion film-making method. The Yb3+-nanopaper exhibits excellent properties, including high transparency (90%), good flexibility, visible fluorescence and NIR phosphorescence. The morphology and chemical structures of Yb3+-nanopaper are investigated with SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, ICP-OES and FT-IR spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the Yb3+-CQDs have been successfully grafted onto ONFC matrix, and the Yb3+-CQDs are well dispersed in nanopaper with strong visible-NIR dual emission under only one UV excitation. In the Yb3+-nanopaper, CQDs not only act as visible fluorescence “emitter” but also as “antenna” sensitizing Yb3+ ions with NIR characteristic luminescence. And the sensitization of the energy transfer pathway is mainly through singlet state (1LC). Furthermore, the surface passivation of Yb3+-CQDs with ONFC produces an enhanced NIR luminescence by eight times in intensity. Of importance here is that high level security codes of Yb3+-nanopaper can be achieved in three fashions including colour tuning from blue to yellow, NIR/visible spectra, and nanosecond/microsecond lifetime. In addition, aqueous solution of Yb3+-CQDs-ONFC being colourless and transparent can be applied as water-based security ink and spread on the currency note or filter paper, and the spread patterns on the filter paper are stable under water or moist environment.

Keywords

NIR-visible dual emission Yb(III) doped carbon quantum dots Oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose Water-based ink Transparent nanopaper 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370578, 21703131), Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Shaanxi University of Science and Technology (2016BJ-40, BJ15-26). X.Z. thanks the supports from Hong Kong Research Grants Council (HKBU 22304115), Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/16-17/024, FRG1/15-16/052, RC-IRMS/16/17/02CHEM and RC-ICRS/1617/02C-CHEM).

Supplementary material

10570_2017_1594_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1103 kb)

References

  1. Archer RD, Chen H, Thompson LC (1998) Synthesis, characterization, and luminescence of europium (III) schiff base complexes. Inorg Chem 37:2089–2095.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ic960244d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balkel DE, Becker RS (1968) Relation between the absorption and excitation spectra and relative quantum yields of fluorescence of all-trans-retinal. J Am Chem Soc 90:6710–6711.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01026a026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bünzli J-CG, Eliseeva SV (2013) Intriguing aspects of lanthanide luminescence. Chem Sci 4:1939–1949.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3SC22126A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carnall WT, Fields PR, Rajnak K (1968) Electronic energy levels of the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions Gd3+. J Chem Phys 49:4443–4446.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1669894 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen L, Lai C, Marchewka R, Berry RM, Tam KC (2016) Use of CdS quantum dot-functionalized cellulose nanocrystal films for anti-counterfeiting applications. Nanoscale 8:13288–13296.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6NR03039D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Das RK, Mohapatra S (2017) Highly luminescent, heteroatom-doped carbon quantum dots for ultrasensitive sensing of glucosamine and targeted imaging of liver cancer cells. J Mater Chem B 511:2190–2197.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TB03141B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dexter DL (1953) A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids. J Chem Phys 21:836–850.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1699044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diez I, Eronen P, Osterberg M, Linder MB, Ikkala O, Ras RHA (2011) Functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose with silver nanoclusters: fluorescence and antibacterial activity. Macromol Biosci 11:1185–1191.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mabi.201100099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding H, Yu S-B, Wei J-S, Xiong H-M (2016) Full-color light-emitting carbon dots with a surface-state-controlled luminescence mechanism. ACS Nano 10:484–491.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b05406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Divya V, Biju S, Varma RL, Reddy M (2010) Highly efficient visible light sensitized red emission from europium tris[1-(4-biphenoyl)-3-(2-fluoroyl)propanedione](1,10-phenanthroline) complex grafted on silica nanoparticles. J Mater Chem 20:5220–5227.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C0JM00588F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Du BB, Zhu YX, Pan M, Yue MQ, Hou YJ, Wu K, Zhang LY, Chen L, Yin SY, Fan YN, Su CY (2015) Direct white-light and a dual-channel barcode module from Pr (III)-MOF crystals. Chem Commun 51:12533–12536.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5CC04468E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng WX, Yin SY, Pan M, Wang HP, Fan YN, Lü XQ, Su CY (2017) PMMA-copolymerized color tunable and pure white-light emitting Eu3+–Tb3+ containing Ln-Metallopolymers. J Mater Chem C 5:1742–1750.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TC04851J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Filpponen I, Argyropoulos DS (2010) Regular linking of cellulose nanocrystals via click chemistry: synthesis and formation of cellulose nanoplatelet gels. Biomacromolecules 11:1060–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm1000247 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Galland S, Berthold F, Prakobna K, Berglund LA (2015) Holocellulose nanofibers of high molar mass and small diameter for high-strength nanopaper. Biomacromolecules 16:2427–2435.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00678 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gao MX, Liu CF, Wu ZL, Zeng QL, Yang XX, Wu WB, Li YF, Huang CZ (2013) A surfactant-assisted redox hydrothermal route to prepare highly photoluminescent carbon quantum dots with aggregation-induced emission enhancement properties. Chem Commun 49:8015–8017.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3CC44624G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guo J, Liu D, Filpponen I, Johansson L-S, Malho J-M, Quraishi S, Liebner F, Santos HA, Rojas OJ (2017) Photoluminescent hybrids of cellulose nanocrystals and carbon quantum dots as cytocompatible probes for in vitro bioimaging. Biomacromolecules 18:2045–2055.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.7b00306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hu L, Sun Y, Li S, Wang X, Hu K, Wang L, Liang X, Wu Y (2014) Multifunctional carbon dots with high quantum yield for imaging and gene delivery. Carbon 67:508–513.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiang K, Zhang L, Lu J, Xu C, Cai C, Lin H (2016) Triple-mode emission of carbon dots: applications for advanced anti-counterfeiting. Angew Chem Int Ed 55:7231–7235.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.201602445 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Junka K, Guo J, Filpponen I, Laine J, Rojas OJ (2014) Modification of cellulose nanofibrils with luminescent carbon dots. Biomacromolecules 15:876–881.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.7b00306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumar P, Singh S, Gupta BK (2016) Future prospects of luminescent nanomaterial based security inks: from synthesis to anti-counterfeiting applications. Nanoscale 8:14297–14340.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5NR06965C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lim SY, Shen W, Gao ZQ (2015) Carbon quantum dots and their applications. Chem Soc Rev 44:362–381.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4CS00269E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin N, Dufresne A (2014) Surface chemistry, morphological analysis and properties of cellulose nanocrystals with gradiented sulfation degrees. Nanoscale 6:5384–5393.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3NR06761K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu K, Chen L, Huang L, Lai Y (2016) Evaluation of ethylenediamine-modified nanofibrillated cellulose/chitosan composites on adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solution. Carbohyd Polym 151:1115–1119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.06.071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lu Y, Yan B (2014) Luminescent lanthanide barcodes based on postsynthetic modified nanoscale metal-organic frameworks. J Mater Chem C 2:7411–7416.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4TC01077A CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lu S, Sui L, Liu J, Zhu S, Chen A, Jin M, Yang B (2017) Near-infrared photoluminescent polymer-carbon nanodots with two-photon fluorescence. Adv Mater 29:1603443–1603446.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201603443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miao M, Zhao J, Feng X, Cao Y, Cao S, Zhao Y, Ge X, Sun L, Shi L, Fang J (2015) Fast fabrication of transparent and multi-luminescent TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose nanopaper functionalized with lanthanide complexes. J Mater Chem C 3:2511–2517.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C4TC02622E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Missoum K, Bras J, Belgacem MN (2012) Organization of aliphatic chains grafted on nanofibrillated cellulose and influence on final properties. Cellulose 19:1957–1973.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-012-9780-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ngo YH, Li D, Simon GP, Garnier G (2011) Paper surfaces functionalized by nanoparticles. Adv Colloid Interface 163:23–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2011.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Osterberg M, Vartiainen J, Lucenius J, Hippi U, Seppala J, Serimaa R, Laine J (2013) A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:4640–4647.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am401046x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pan J, Zheng Z, Yang J, Wu Y, Lu F, Chen Y, Gao W (2017) A novel and sensitive fluorescence sensor for glutathione detection by controlling the surface passivation degree of carbon quantum dots. Talanta 166:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.01.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Raj DBA, Francis B, Reddy MLP, Butorac RR, Lynch VM, Cowley AH (2010) Highly luminescent poly(methyl methacrylate)-incorporated europium complex supported by a carbazole-based fluorinated β-diketonate ligand and a 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9-dimethylxanthene oxide co-ligand. Inorg Chem 49:9055–9063.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ic1015324 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Retot H, Bessiere A, Viana B, Galtayries A (2011) Location of trivalent lanthanide dopant energy levels in (Lu0.5Gd0.5)2O3. J Appl Phys 109:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3597788 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robert JM, Ashlie M, John N, John S, Jeff Y (2011) Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites. Chem Soc Rev 40:3941–3994.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C0CS00108B CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sanchez C, Belleville P, Popallad M, Nicole L (2011) Applications of advanced hybrid organic–inorganic nanomaterials: from laboratory to market. Chem Soc Rev 40:696–753.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C0CS00136H CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sehaqui H, Zhou Q, Ikkala O, Berglund LA (2011) Strong and tough cellulose nanopaper with high specific surface area and porosity. Biomacromolecules 12:3638–3644.  https://doi.org/10.1021/bm2008907 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Song Z, Lin T, Lin L, Lin S, Fu F, Wang X, Guo L (2016) Invisible security ink based on water-soluble graphitic carbon nitride quantum dots. Angew Chem Int Ed 55:2773–2777.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ange.201510945 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Song N, Jiao D, Cui S, Hou X, Ding P, Shi L (2017) Highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of layer-by-layer assembled nanofibrillated cellulose/graphene nanosheets hybrid films for thermal management. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:2924–2932.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b11979 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Steemers FJ, Verboom W, Reinhoudt DN, Tol vander EB, Verhoeven JW (1995) New sensitizer-modified calix [4] arenes enabling near-UV excitation of complexed luminescent lanthanide ions. J Am Chem Soc 117:9408–9414.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00142a004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vandenabeele P, Edwards HGM, Jehlička J (2014) The role of mobile instrumentation in novel applications of raman spectroscopy: archaeometry, geosciences, and forensics. Chem Soc Rev 43:2628–2649.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3CS60263J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weber MJ (1968) Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3. J Phys Rev 171:283–291.  https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.171.283 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. White KA, Gogick D, Stehman J, Rosi NL, Petoud S (2009) Near-infrared luminescent lanthanide MOF barcodes. J Am Chem Soc 131:18069–18071.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja907885m CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu F, Su H, Zhu X, Wang K, Zhang Z, Wong W-K (2016) Near-infrared emissive lanthanide hybridized carbon quantum dots for bioimaging applications. J Mater Chem B 4:6366–6372.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C6TB01646D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Xu Y, Jia X-H, Yin X-B, He X-W, Zhang Y-K (2014) Carbon quantum dot stabilized gadolinium nanoprobe prepared via a one-pot hydrothermal approach for magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual-modality bioimaging. Anal Chem 86:12122–12129.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac503002c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xu S, Chen R, Zheng C, Huang W (2016) Excited state modulation for organic afterglow: materials and applications. Adv Mater 28:9920–9940.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201602604 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xue J, Song F, Yin X, Wang X, Wang Y (2015) Let it shine: a transparent and photoluminescent foldable nanocellulose/quantum dot paper. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:10076–10079.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b02011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yin SY, Chen L, Pan M, Wang Z, Zhang LY, Wang HP, YaNan Fan SuCY (2016) A mathematically-tuning model of multicolor and white light upconversion in lanthanide-doped ZrO2 macroporous matrix. ChemistrySelect 1:3136–3143.  https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.201600344 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Youssef H (2014) Key advances in the chemical modification of nanocelluloses. Chem Soc Rev 43:1519–1542.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C3CS60204D CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang Z, Feng WX, Su PY, Lü XQ, Song JR, Fan DD, Wong W-K, Jones RA, Su CY (2014) Near-infrared luminescent PMMA-supported metallopolymers based on Zn–Nd schiff-base complexes. Inorg Chem 53:5950–5960.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ic500132n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhang Z, He Y-N, Liu L, Lü X-Q, Zhu X-J, Wong W-K, Pan M, Su C-Y (2016) Pure white-light and colour-tuning of Eu3+–Gd3+-containing metallopolymer. Chem Commun 52:3713–3716.  https://doi.org/10.1039/C5CC09946C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zhao J, Wei Z, Feng X, Miao M, Sun L, Cao S, Shi L, Fang J (2014) Luminescent and transparent nanopaper based on rare-earth up-converting nanoparticle grafted nanofibrillated cellulose derived from garlic skin. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:14945–14951.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am5026352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhao Y, Wei R, Feng X, Sun L, Liu P, Su Y, Shi L (2016) Dual-mode luminescent nanopaper based on ultrathin g–C3N4 nanosheets grafted with rare-earth upconversion nanoparticles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:21555–21562.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b06254 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Papermaking Technology and Specialty Paper Development, College of Bioresources Chemical and Materials EngineeringShaanxi University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong
  3. 3.School of Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Medical MaterialNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  4. 4.Chemical and Paper EngineeringWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations