, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 377–389 | Cite as

Near-infrared and visible dual emissive transparent nanopaper based on Yb(III)–carbon quantum dots grafted oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose for anti-counterfeiting applications

Original Paper


We report a novel near-infrared (NIR) and visible dual emissive transparent Yb3+-nanopaper, which is produced from Yb3+-CQDs grafted oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (Yb3+-CQDs-ONFC) using a press-controlled extrusion film-making method. The Yb3+-nanopaper exhibits excellent properties, including high transparency (90%), good flexibility, visible fluorescence and NIR phosphorescence. The morphology and chemical structures of Yb3+-nanopaper are investigated with SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, ICP-OES and FT-IR spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the Yb3+-CQDs have been successfully grafted onto ONFC matrix, and the Yb3+-CQDs are well dispersed in nanopaper with strong visible-NIR dual emission under only one UV excitation. In the Yb3+-nanopaper, CQDs not only act as visible fluorescence “emitter” but also as “antenna” sensitizing Yb3+ ions with NIR characteristic luminescence. And the sensitization of the energy transfer pathway is mainly through singlet state (1LC). Furthermore, the surface passivation of Yb3+-CQDs with ONFC produces an enhanced NIR luminescence by eight times in intensity. Of importance here is that high level security codes of Yb3+-nanopaper can be achieved in three fashions including colour tuning from blue to yellow, NIR/visible spectra, and nanosecond/microsecond lifetime. In addition, aqueous solution of Yb3+-CQDs-ONFC being colourless and transparent can be applied as water-based security ink and spread on the currency note or filter paper, and the spread patterns on the filter paper are stable under water or moist environment.


NIR-visible dual emission Yb(III) doped carbon quantum dots Oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose Water-based ink Transparent nanopaper 



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370578, 21703131), Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Shaanxi University of Science and Technology (2016BJ-40, BJ15-26). X.Z. thanks the supports from Hong Kong Research Grants Council (HKBU 22304115), Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/16-17/024, FRG1/15-16/052, RC-IRMS/16/17/02CHEM and RC-ICRS/1617/02C-CHEM).

Supplementary material

10570_2017_1594_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1103 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Papermaking Technology and Specialty Paper Development, College of Bioresources Chemical and Materials EngineeringShaanxi University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong
  3. 3.School of Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Medical MaterialNorthwest UniversityXi’anChina
  4. 4.Chemical and Paper EngineeringWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

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