Near-infrared and visible dual emissive transparent nanopaper based on Yb(III)–carbon quantum dots grafted oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose for anti-counterfeiting applications
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We report a novel near-infrared (NIR) and visible dual emissive transparent Yb3+-nanopaper, which is produced from Yb3+-CQDs grafted oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (Yb3+-CQDs-ONFC) using a press-controlled extrusion film-making method. The Yb3+-nanopaper exhibits excellent properties, including high transparency (90%), good flexibility, visible fluorescence and NIR phosphorescence. The morphology and chemical structures of Yb3+-nanopaper are investigated with SEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, ICP-OES and FT-IR spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the Yb3+-CQDs have been successfully grafted onto ONFC matrix, and the Yb3+-CQDs are well dispersed in nanopaper with strong visible-NIR dual emission under only one UV excitation. In the Yb3+-nanopaper, CQDs not only act as visible fluorescence “emitter” but also as “antenna” sensitizing Yb3+ ions with NIR characteristic luminescence. And the sensitization of the energy transfer pathway is mainly through singlet state (1LC). Furthermore, the surface passivation of Yb3+-CQDs with ONFC produces an enhanced NIR luminescence by eight times in intensity. Of importance here is that high level security codes of Yb3+-nanopaper can be achieved in three fashions including colour tuning from blue to yellow, NIR/visible spectra, and nanosecond/microsecond lifetime. In addition, aqueous solution of Yb3+-CQDs-ONFC being colourless and transparent can be applied as water-based security ink and spread on the currency note or filter paper, and the spread patterns on the filter paper are stable under water or moist environment.
KeywordsNIR-visible dual emission Yb(III) doped carbon quantum dots Oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose Water-based ink Transparent nanopaper
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31370578, 21703131), Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Shaanxi University of Science and Technology (2016BJ-40, BJ15-26). X.Z. thanks the supports from Hong Kong Research Grants Council (HKBU 22304115), Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/16-17/024, FRG1/15-16/052, RC-IRMS/16/17/02CHEM and RC-ICRS/1617/02C-CHEM).
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