Antimicrobial wound dressing film utilizing cellulose nanocrystal as drug delivery system for curcumin
- 117 Downloads
Diabetic patients with foot ulcer showed 150-fold increased risk of amputation, which is primarily caused by microbial infection. Silver ions are commonly incorporated into wound dressing to enhance the antimicrobial property. However, concerns have been expressed about the development of bacterial resistance to heavy metals. In this study, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of cellulose nanocrystal film to be used as antimicrobial drug delivery system in a diabetic wound dressing. Cellulose nanocrystals were successfully isolated from medical grade cotton fibers. We observe needle-like cellulose nanocrystals with an average length of 159 nm under transmission electron microscope. The developed film with curcumin shows a uniform yellow color, with a thickness of 0.4 mm. The film obtained is soft and flexible, based on the mechanical characterization study of the film. For the curcumin release test, the release reaches plateau condition at 36 h with a total release of 98.9% from the cellulose nanocrystal film. No burst release effect was detected during the test period. The film exhibited significant inhibitory activity on 3 Gram positive bacteria, 2 Gram negative bacteria and 1 yeast. On Hohenstein challenge test, all test microorganisms showed significant growth reduction, with the treatment of curcumin loaded film. 5 of 6 test microorganisms showed 99% of growth reduction relative to growth control. We also notice that the antimicrobial activity of the film sustained even after 15 washes. In the in vivo study using diabetic rat models, a significant reduction of wound size was observed from Day 7 with the topical application of curcumin loaded film. At the end of the study, the lesion was covered by epithelial tissue and the hair started to grow from the skin. A bacterial growth reduction of 99.99% was observed from the skin sample excised from the animal models. The histological examination of skin sample also showed that curcumin loaded film significantly improved the regeneration of hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the skin. Our results indicate that the curcumin load cellulose nanocrystal films can be used for diabetic wound healing applications.
KeywordsCellulose nanocrystal Curcumin Antimicrobial activity Diabetic wound ulcer
The authors are thankful to Universiti Kuala Lumpur. The study is funded by Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS/1/2017/STG05/UNIKL/02/5), Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.
- Bader MS (2008) Diabetic foot infection. Am Fam Physician 78(1):71–79Google Scholar
- Biter LU, Beck GM, Mannaerts GH, Stok MM, Van der Ham AC, Grotenhuis BA (2014) The use of negative-pressure wound therapy in pilonidal sinus disease: a randomized controlled trial comparing negative-pressure wound therapy versus standard open wound care after surgical excision. Dis Colon Rectum 57(12):1406–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kunkemoeller B, Kyriakides T (2017) Redox signaling in diabetic wound healing regulates extracellular matrix deposition. Antioxid Redox Signal 4:62–66Google Scholar
- Pednekar SN, Pol SS, Kamble SS, Deshpande SK (2015) Drug resistant anaerobic infections: Are they complicating diabetic foot ulcer? Int J Healthc Biomed Res 3(3):142–148Google Scholar
- Soheil M, Abdul Kadir H, Hassandarvish P, Tajik H, Abubakar S, Zandi K (2014) A review on antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity of curcumin. Biomed Res Int 14:212–223Google Scholar
- Yenn TW, Ngim AS, Ibrahim D, Zakaria L (2014) Antimicrobial activity of Penicillium minioluteum ED24, an endophytic fungus residing in Orthosiphon stamineus benth. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(3):121–132Google Scholar