Self-healing and injectable polysaccharide hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties
An injectable polysaccharide hydrogel based on cellulose acetoacetate (CAA), hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS), and amino-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-NH2) was prepared under physiological conditions. CNC-NH2 acted as both physical and chemical cross-linker. The effects of CNC-NH2 loading on the mechanical properties, internal morphology and gelation time were investigated; the maximum storage modulus was observed for a gel containing 0.80 wt% of CNC-NH2. The structure and properties of the polysaccharide hydrogel were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and rheology testing. The polysaccharide hydrogel exhibited pH- responsive properties and excellent stability under physiological conditions. The hydrogel also exhibited self-healing behavior under acidic conditions via enamine bond exchange. In addition, CCK-8 cytotoxicity study with fibroblast L929 cells demonstrates good biocompatibility of CNCs reinforced hydrogels.
KeywordsSelf-healing Injectable polysaccharide hydrogel Cellulose nanocrystals Enamine bond
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51403035), the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia (2015MS0209), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 15D110510).
- Casuso P, Odriozola I, Perez-San Vicente A, Loinaz I, Cabanero G, Grande HJ, Dupin D (2015) Injectable and self-healing dynamic hydrogels based on metal(I)-thiolate/disulfide exchange as biomaterials with tunable mechanical properties. Biomacromol 16:3552–3561. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- De France KJ, Chan KJ, Cranston ED, Hoare T (2016) Enhanced mechanical properties in cellulose nanocrystal-poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) injectable nanocomposite hydrogels through control of physical and chemical cross-linking. Biomacromol 17:649–660. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.5b01598 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McKee JR, Appel EA, Seitsonen J, Kontturi E, Scherman OA, Ikkala O (2014a) Healable, stable and stiff hydrogels: combining conflicting properties using dynamic and selective three-component recognition with reinforcing cellulose nanorods. Adv Funct Mater 24:2706–2713. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201303699 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang J, Han C-R, Zhang X-M, Xu F, Sun R-C (2014a) Cellulose nanocrystals mechanical reinforcement in composite hydrogels with multiple cross-links: correlations between dissipation properties and deformation mechanisms. Macromolecules 47:4077–4086. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma500729q CrossRefGoogle Scholar