, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 559–571 | Cite as

Self-healing and injectable polysaccharide hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties

  • Hongchen Liu
  • Chaojing Li
  • Bijia Wang
  • Xiaofeng Sui
  • Lu Wang
  • Xiaolin Yan
  • Hong Xu
  • Linping Zhang
  • Yi Zhong
  • Zhiping Mao
Original Paper


An injectable polysaccharide hydrogel based on cellulose acetoacetate (CAA), hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS), and amino-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-NH2) was prepared under physiological conditions. CNC-NH2 acted as both physical and chemical cross-linker. The effects of CNC-NH2 loading on the mechanical properties, internal morphology and gelation time were investigated; the maximum storage modulus was observed for a gel containing 0.80 wt% of CNC-NH2. The structure and properties of the polysaccharide hydrogel were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and rheology testing. The polysaccharide hydrogel exhibited pH- responsive properties and excellent stability under physiological conditions. The hydrogel also exhibited self-healing behavior under acidic conditions via enamine bond exchange. In addition, CCK-8 cytotoxicity study with fibroblast L929 cells demonstrates good biocompatibility of CNCs reinforced hydrogels.


Self-healing Injectable polysaccharide hydrogel Cellulose nanocrystals Enamine bond 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51403035), the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia (2015MS0209), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 15D110510).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongchen Liu
    • 1
  • Chaojing Li
    • 2
  • Bijia Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaofeng Sui
    • 1
  • Lu Wang
    • 2
  • Xiaolin Yan
    • 3
  • Hong Xu
    • 1
  • Linping Zhang
    • 1
  • Yi Zhong
    • 1
  • Zhiping Mao
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyDonghua UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Lab of Textile Science and Technology, Ministry of EducationDonghua UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Inner Mongolia Agricultural UniversityHohhotPeople’s Republic of China

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