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Cellulose

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 3013–3022 | Cite as

Rheological behavior and particle suspension capability of guar gum: sodium tetraborate decahydrate gels containing cellulose nanofibrils

  • Chenggui Sun
  • Yaman Boluk
Original Paper

Abstract

Guar gum (GG) fracturing fluids were studied by incorporating cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in anhydrous borax crosslinked guar gum gels. To fully understand the impact of CNF on the proppant suspension capability of developed fracturing fluids, their shear rate-dependent viscosity and viscoelasticity were investigated. The shear rate dependencies of fluids was fitted to the Carreau model. The zero shear rate viscosity and elasticity of fracturing fluids increased significantly by incorporating CNF in guar gum gels. On the other hand, the viscosity at high shear rates (>100 s−1) decreased as desired. The proppant settling velocities through fracturing fluids were evaluated by modeling the terminal falling velocity of proppants moving through a Carreau model fluid. The experimental results of the rheological behavior and the modeling results of the proppant settling rate indicated that the fracturing fluids containing CNF had better suspension capabilities. In addition, the lower viscosities of CNF formulated GG gels at higher shear rates will make them more pumpable.

Keywords

Guar gum Borax crosslinked Fracturing fluid Cellulose nanofibrils Proppant settling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by Alberta Innovates Bio Solutions and NSERC Bioconversion Network. We thank the National Institute for Nanotechnology and Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures for providing training and research equipment.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.National Institute for NanotechnologyEdmontonCanada

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