, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 2039–2047 | Cite as

Upgrading old corrugated cardboard (OCC) to dissolving pulp

  • M. Sarwar Jahan
  • M. Mostafizur Rahman
  • Mamon Sarkar
Original Paper


Delignification and pentosan dissolution of old corrugated cardboard (OCC) pulp was carried out using formic acid (FA) followed by alkaline extraction at atmospheric pressure. The kappa number of the initial OCC pulp was 41.4, which was decreased to 18.0 after 3.5 h of formic acid treatment. At this point, the pentosan content in the formic-acid-treated pulp was 6.20 %, being further decreased to 3.92 % after alkaline extraction with 8 % NaOH for 120 min at 90 °C. The overall pulp yield after FA treatment and alkaline extraction reached 48.0 %. Alkaline-extracted pulp was bleached to 85 % brightness using a D0EpD1EpD2 bleaching sequence, with α-cellulose content of 94.7 %. FA and alkaline extraction liquor dissolved mostly hemicellulose and lignin, which were isolated and characterized. The fractions of lignin and hemicellulosic sugars recovered from the FA spent liquor were 4.3 and 12.7 %, respectively. The lignin was characterized as having a lower amount of methoxyl but higher amount of phenolic hydroxyl groups.


OCC pulp Formic acid cooking Alkaline extraction Dissolving pulp Pentosan Kappa number α-Cellulose 



The authors wish to thank BCSIR for providing funding necessary to carry out this research.


  1. Ahsan L, Jahan MS, Ni Y (2014) Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process. Bioresour Technol 155:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon (2012) American Forest and Paper Association, “Statistics: Paper and Paperboard Recovery,” AF&PA, Washington, DC, 2012. (4 April 2015)
  3. Arnoul-Jarriault B, Lachenal D, Chirat C, Heux L (2015) Upgrading softwood bleached kraft pulp to dissolving pulp by cold caustic treatment and acid-hot caustic treatment. Ind Crops Prod 65:565–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biermann CJ (1993) Essentials of pulping and papermaking. Academic, New York, pp 72–100Google Scholar
  5. Borrega M, Tolonen LK, Bardot F, Testova L, Sixta H (2013) Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping. Bioresour Technol 135:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen ZX, Heltmann JA, Chana HM (1998) Secondary fibre quality enhancement: Alkaline and Oxygen treatment. Pap Technol 39(9):45–49Google Scholar
  7. Chen Y, Wan J, Ma Y, Tang B, Han W, Ragauskas AJ (2012) Modification of old corrugated container pulp with laccase and laccase–mediator system. Bioresour Technol 110:297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duan C, Li J, Ma X, Chen C, Liu Y, Stavik J, Ni Y (2015) Comparison of acid sulfite (AS)- and prehydrolysis kraft (PHK)-based dissolving pulps. Cellulose 22(6):4017–4026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Evans R, Wearne RH, Wallis AFA (1990) CHE bleached radiata pine bisulfite pulp as a source of chemical cellulose. APPITA 43(2):130–136Google Scholar
  10. Fellers C, Htun M, Kolman M et al (1978) Svensk papperstidning 81(14):443Google Scholar
  11. Freeland PA, Hrutfiord B (1994) Caustic treatment of OCC for strength improvement during recycling. Tappi J 77(4):185Google Scholar
  12. Goulas AK, Kapasakalidis PG, Sinclair HR, Rastall RA, Grandison AS (2002) Purification of oligosaccharides by nanofiltration. J Membr Sci 209:321–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hinck JF, Casebier RL, Hamilton JK (1985) In Ingruder OV, Kocurek JJ, Wong W (eds) Pulp and paper manufacture, vol. 4. Tappi Press, Atlanta, pp 213–243Google Scholar
  14. Ibarra D, Köpcke V, Ek M (2009) Exploring enzymatic treatments for the production of dissolving grade pulp from different wood and non-wood paper grade pulps 10th EWLP, Stockholm, Sweden, August 25–28, 2008. Holzforschung 63(6):721–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ibarra D, Köpcke V, Larsson PT, Jääskeläinen AS, Ek M (2010) Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp. Bioresour Technol 101(19):7416–7423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson LS, Heitmann JA, Joyce TW (1998) Production of dissolving pulp from recovered paper using enzymes. Tappi J 81(3):171–178Google Scholar
  17. Jahan MS (2009) Studies on the effect of prehydrolysis and amine in cooking liquor on producing dissolving pulp from jute (Corchorus capsularis). Wood Sci Technol 43(3–4):213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jahan MS, Lee ZZ, Jin Y (2006) Organic acid pulping of rice straw. I: cooking. Turk J Agric For 30(3):231–239Google Scholar
  19. Jahan MS, Chowdhury DA, Islam MK, Islam MS (2007) Organic acid pulping of jute and its mechanism. Cellul Chem Technol 41(2–3):137–147Google Scholar
  20. Jahan MS, Ahsan L, Noori A, Quaiyyum MA (2008a) Process for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis (Nalita) by prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine (EDA) process. BioResources 3(3):816–828Google Scholar
  21. Jahan MS, Rawsan S, Chowdhury DN, Al-Maruf A (2008b) Alternative pulping process for producing dissolving pulp from jute. BioResources 3(4):1359–1370Google Scholar
  22. Janzon R, Puls J, Bohn A, Potthast A, Saake B (2008) Upgrading of paper grade pulps to dissolving pulps by nitren extraction: yields, molecular and supramolecular structures of nitren extracted pulps. Cellulose 15(5):739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Köpcke V, Ibarra D, Larsson PT, Ek M (2010) Optimization of treatment sequences for the production of dissolving pulp from birch kraft pulp. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 25(1):31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li S, Lundquist K (2000) Cleavage of aryl-glycerol b-aryl ethers under neutral and acid conditions. Nord Pulp Pap Res J 15:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liu H, Hu H, Jahan MS, Ni Y (2013) Furfural formation from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. Bioresour Technol 131:315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu H, Hu H, Baktash MM, Jahan MS, Ahsan L, Ni Y (2014) Kinetics of furfural production from pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of a kraft-based hardwood dissolving pulp production process. Biomass Bioenergy 66:320–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu S, Wang Q, Yang G, Chen J, Ni Y, Ji X (2015) Kinetics of viscosity decrease by cellulase treatment of bleached hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. BioResources 10(2):2418–2424Google Scholar
  28. Lundberg R, Ruvo AD (1978) The influence of defibration and beating conditions on the paper making potential of recycled paper. Svensk Papperstid 81(12):383–386Google Scholar
  29. Matin M, Rahaman MM, Nayeem J, Sarkar M, Jahan MS (2015) Dissolving pulp from jute stick. Carbohydr Polym 115:44–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meller A (1950) Eucalypt pulps from water prehydrolysis and sulphate pulping. The process and resultant pulp properties. Tappi 33(5):248–253Google Scholar
  31. Morao AIC, Alves AMB, Costa MC, Cardoso JP (2006) Nanofiltration of a clarified fermentation broth. Chem Eng Sci 61:2418–2427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pan X, Sano Y (2005) Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process. Bioresour Technol 96(11):1256–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Qi B, Luo J, Chen X, Hang X, Wan Y (2011) Separation of furfural from monosaccharides by nanofiltration. Bioresour Technol 102:7111–7118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reichert T, Abubakr SM, McKean WT, Ross RJ, Pellerin RE, River BH et al (1984) Mild kraft treatment of linerboard, corrugated medium, and box plant clippings. Adhes Age:16–21Google Scholar
  35. Saeed A, Jahan MS, Li H, Liu Z, Ni Y, van Heiningen A (2012) Mass balances of components dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process from Canadian hardwoods. Biomass Bioenergy 39:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sixta H (2006) Handbook of pulp. Wiley-VCH Verlag, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tian C, Zheng L, Miao Q, Nash C, Cao C, Ni Y (2013) Improvement in the Fock test for reactivity of dissolving pulp. Tappi J 12:19–24Google Scholar
  38. Toledano A, Garcia A, Mondragon I, Labidi J (2010) Lignin separation and fractionation by ultrafiltration. Sep Purif Technol 71:38–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wallis AFA, Wearne RH (1990) Chemical cellulose from radiata pine kraft pulp. Appita 43(5):355Google Scholar
  40. Wang H, Pang B, Wu K, Kong F, Li B, Mu X (2014) Two stages of treatments for upgrading bleached softwood paper grade pulp to dissolving pulp for viscose production. Biochem Eng J 82:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pulp and Paper Research DivisionBCSIR Laboratories, DhakaDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations