How much the fabric grammage may affect cotton combustion?
- 209 Downloads
The present article is addressed to investigating the effect of different fabric grammages (mass per area unit) on cotton combustion. To this aim, 100, 200 and 400 g/m2 cotton fabrics were tested when exposed to (1) two different heat fluxes (25 and 35 kW/m2) under a cone calorimeter, (2) a methane flame in horizontal or vertical flame spread tests or (3) a propane flame in Limiting Oxygen Index tests, and (4) when pyrolysed and further oxidised in pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC). The collected results demonstrated a precise relationship between fabric grammage and cotton combustion behaviour. Indeed, when exposed to a 35-kW/m2 heat flux, the higher the fabric grammage, the higher the total heat release during combustion was; the opposite trend was observed when the same fabrics were pyrolysed and further oxidised in PCFC. This finding was ascribed to the different scenarios described by these instrumentations; indeed, the cone calorimeter was able to reproduce cotton combustion in a well-ventilated context in the presence of air (thus, oxygen), while PCFC only represented the combustion of pyrolysis products. However, both techniques indirectly evidenced a linear dependence of char formation as a function of fabric grammage: the higher the fabric grammage, the larger the amount of char formed was. The same trend was also observed during horizontal and vertical flame spread tests. In conclusion, the present article is intended to show how cotton combustion may be affected by fabric grammage as well as how such behaviour is influenced by the experimental conditions in which it is investigated.
KeywordsCotton Combustion Cone calorimeter PCFC LOI Flame spread tests
The authors thank the European COST Action FLARETEX (MP1105) “Sustainable flame retardancy for textiles and related materials based on nanoparticles substituting conventional chemicals”. In addition, the authors want to thank Mr. Andrea Messina and Mr. Alessandro Di Blasio for the PCFC tests and SEM observations, respectively. In addition, we thank Dr. Gabriella Fusi and Centro Tessile e Cotoniero (Busto Arsizio, Italy) for the measurements regarding the fabric weave.
- Alongi J, Carosio F, Horrocks AR, Malucelli G (2013b) Update on flame retardant textiles: state of the art, environmental issues and innovative solutions. Smithers RAPRA Publishing, ShawburyGoogle Scholar
- ASTM D2863 (2006) Standard test method for measuring the minimum oxygen concentration to support candle-like combustion of plastics (oxygen index). American Society for Testing and Materials International, West Conshohocken (Pennsylvania)Google Scholar
- ASTM D7309 (2013) Standard test method for determining flammability characteristics of plastics and other solid materials using microscale combustion calorimetry. American Society for Testing and Materials International, West Conshohocken (Pennsylvania)Google Scholar
- Basak S, Samanta KK, Chattopadhyay SK, Narkar R (2015b) Self-extinguishable ligno-cellulosic fabric using banana pseudostem sap. Curr Sci 108:372–383Google Scholar
- Faroq AA, Price D, Milnes GJ, Horrocks AR (1991) Use of gas chromatographic analysis of volatile products to investigate the mechanisms underlying the influence of flame retardants on the pyrolysis of cellulose in air. Polym Degrad Stab 33:155–170. doi: 10.1016/0141-3910(91)90015-J CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ISO 13943 (2007) Fire safety—vocabulary. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ISO 3572 (1976) Textiles—weaves—definition of general terms and basic weaves. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ISO 5660 (2002) Fire test, reaction to fire, rate of heat release (cone calorimeter method). International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- UNI EN 1049 (1996) Woven fabrics—construction—methods of analysis. Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, Milano (Italy)Google Scholar