, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 637–654 | Cite as

Effect of alkali and silane surface treatments on regenerated cellulose fibre type (Lyocell) intended for composites

  • Sunil Kumar Ramamoorthy
  • Mikael Skrifvars
  • Marja Rissanen
Original Paper


Cellulose fibres have significant importance and potential for polymer reinforcement. It is essential to modify the surface of the fibre to obtain good fibre-matrix interface. Surface treatments can increase surface roughness of the fibre, change its chemical composition and introduce new moieties that can effectively interlock with the matrix, resulting in good mechanical properties in the composites. This is mainly due to improved fibre-matrix adhesion. The treatments may also reduce the water absorption rate by converting part of the hydroxyl groups on the fibre surface into other functional groups. Chemical modification of the surface of a regenerated cellulose fibre of the Lyocell type was carried out by alkali and silane treatments, which significantly changed the properties of the Lyocell fibres. Three parameters were considered when the fibre surface treatment was done: concentration (2–15 wt%), temperature (25 and 50 °C) and time (30 min–72 h). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used for chemical analysis and qualitative analysis of the cellulose crystallinity due to the surface treatments; subsequently, mechanical strength of the fibres was tested by tensile testing. Weight loss, moisture regain and swelling measurements were taken before and after treatments, which showed the obvious changes in fibre properties on treatment. Heat capacity of the fibres was measured for untreated and treated fibres, and thermal degradation of fibres was examined to see the stability of fibres at elevated temperatures. Wettability and surface energies were measured using dynamic contact angle method in three wetting mediums. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphological properties of the fibres.


Surface modification Fibre Alkali Silane Lyocell Cellulose 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil Kumar Ramamoorthy
    • 1
  • Mikael Skrifvars
    • 1
  • Marja Rissanen
    • 2
  1. 1.Swedish Centre for Resource RecoveryUniversity of BoråsBoråsSweden
  2. 2.Department of Materials ScienceTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland

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