, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 4643–4658 | Cite as

Ultrasound-assisted ozone bleaching of cotton

  • Hüseyin Aksel Eren
  • Ozan Avinc
  • Burcu Erişmiş
  • Semiha Eren
Original Paper


In this study, the effects of ultrasound on ozone treatment processes for bleaching cotton fabrics were investigated and compared with the conventional hydrogen peroxide bleaching process (60 °C over 90 min). Two ultrasonic + ozone treatments of cotton fabric samples were carried out: (1) ozone in an ultrasonic homogenizer (UH) and (2) ozone in an ultrasonic bath. Ozone dosages, temperature and time variations were determined with both ozone-ultrasonic bleaching processes. Whiteness, yellowness, weight, tensile strength properties, FTIR (ATR) spectra and visual appearance, via scanning electron microscopy of treated cotton fabrics as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) of bleaching effluents, were investigated. It was concluded that the ozone + UH process, conducted for 30 min at 30 °C, produced closely equivalent values of cotton fabric whiteness and yellowness to the classic peroxide bleaching process, with slightly less weight loss, dramatically less COD in the process effluent (29 mg/l for ozone-UH vs. 4,316 mg/l for classical peroxide treatment), and without causing any adverse and/or detrimental effects on loss of fabric strength or elongation of the cotton fabrics. The ozone-UH process also leads to time and energy savings with much less environmental impact. Consequently, the combination of ozonation plus UH carried out at 30 °C over 30 min can be used successfully for cotton bleaching instead of the classic hydrogen peroxide bleaching process.


Ozone Cotton bleaching Ultrasound Sonolysis 



Ultrasonic homogenizer


Ultrasonic bath


Scanning electron microscopy


Chemical oxygen demand



The authors are grateful for financial support from TUBITAK (project no. 110M300).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hüseyin Aksel Eren
    • 1
  • Ozan Avinc
    • 2
  • Burcu Erişmiş
    • 1
  • Semiha Eren
    • 1
  1. 1.Textile Engineering DepartmentUludag UniversityBursaTurkey
  2. 2.Textile Engineering DepartmentPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey

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