, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 1561–1571 | Cite as

Carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose: rheological studies

  • Ali Naderi
  • Tom LindströmEmail author
  • Jonas Sundström
Original Paper


The rheological properties of carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), investigated with controlled shear rate- and oscillatory measurements, are reported for the first time. It was shown that the rheological properties of the studied system are similar to those reported for other NFC systems. The carboxymethylated NFC systems showed among other things high elasticity and a shear thinning behaviour when subjected to increasing shear rates. Further, the shear viscosity and storage modulus of the system displayed power-law relations with respect to the dry content of the NFC suspension. The exponential values, 2 and 2.4 respectively, were found to be in good agreement with both theoretical predictions and published experimental work. Furthermore, it was found that the pulp consistency at which NFC is produced affects the properties of the system. The rheological studies imply that there exists a critical pulp concentration below which the efficiency of the delamination process diminishes; the same adverse effect is also observed when the critical concentration is significantly exceeded due to a lower energy input during delamination.


Nanofibrillated cellulose Carboxymethylation Gel Rheology Viscosity Homogenization 



Ann-Marie Runebjörk, Åsa Blademo, and Åsa Engström are thanked for their competent supporting work. Mikael Ankerfors is thanked for helpful discussions. Billerud-Korsnäs, Borregaard, De la Rue, Hansol, Holmen, Kemira, Korsnäs, Metsä Group, Stora Enso, Södra, UPM, and Evergreen Packaging are acknowledged for their financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Innventia ABStockholmSweden
  2. 2.BiMaC InnovationKTH – Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

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