, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 2175–2178 | Cite as

Aqueous pretreatment for reactive ball milling of cellulose



Aqueous swelling pretreatment of cellulose was found highly effective for reactive ball milling to prepare surface-esterified cellulose nanofibers. Compared with starting from dry cellulose, water- or 2 % NaOH-pre-swollen materials were esterified and dispersed in significantly shorter milling time. Especially commercial kraft pulp was difficult to disperse even with water pretreatment, but 2 % NaOH treatment gave full surface esterification with a bulk degree of substitution of 0.69 by 12-h ball milling, presumably because of removal of non-cellulosic components.


Cellulose nanofiber Aqueous pretreatment Reactive ball milling Mechanochemistry 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 51043003, 51172247, 50821062 and 50773086), the National Program on Key Basic Research Project (973 Program, Nn. 2011CB933700) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Visiting Professorships.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Technical Institute of Physics and ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Graduate SchoolChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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