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Cellulose

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 251–260 | Cite as

Imaging of the formerly bonded area of individual fibre to fibre joints with SEM and AFM

  • Wolfgang J. Fischer
  • Armin Zankel
  • Christian Ganser
  • Franz J. Schmied
  • Hartmuth Schroettner
  • Ulrich Hirn
  • Christian Teichert
  • Wolfgang Bauer
  • Robert Schennach
Original Paper

Abstract

Besides the determination of the force and the energy needed to break individual fibre to fibre joints, the investigation of the formerly bonded area (FBA) is of essential importance to learn more about the failure mechanisms of fibre–fibre bonds in general. In this study the surfaces of paper fibres and the FBA of fibre–fibre joints after the determination of the breaking force as well as the bonding energy were analysed by means of low voltage scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A comparison between the contact zone of fibres broken at different loading rates as well as under cyclic loading showed that there seems to be no significant difference in the appearance of the FBA in these cases. Only minor delamination of the cell wall could be found in the bonding zone, which indicates no mechanical interlocking of fibrils in the bonding zone. Furthermore, it is shown that some glues used for specimen preparation of fibre–fibre bond strength measurement are forming a glue film on the fiber surface and migrate into the bonding region.

Keywords

Fibre to fibre joint Joint strength Bonding energy Formerly bonded area (FBA) Low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Authors want to thank Mondi, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth and the National Foundation for Research, Technology and Development.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wolfgang J. Fischer
    • 2
    • 6
  • Armin Zankel
    • 4
  • Christian Ganser
    • 3
    • 6
  • Franz J. Schmied
    • 5
  • Hartmuth Schroettner
    • 4
  • Ulrich Hirn
    • 2
    • 6
  • Christian Teichert
    • 3
    • 6
  • Wolfgang Bauer
    • 2
    • 6
  • Robert Schennach
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Solid State PhysicsGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Paper, Pulp and Fibre TechnologyGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  3. 3.Institute of PhysicsUniversity of LeobenLeobenAustria
  4. 4.Austrian Centre for Electron Microscopy and NanoanalysisGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria
  5. 5.Mondi Uncoated Fine and Kraft Paper GmbHViennaAustria
  6. 6.CD-Laboratory for Surface Chemical and Physical Fundamentals of Paper StrengthGraz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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