, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 3101–3110 | Cite as

High efficiency ultra-deep dyeing of cotton via mercerization and cationization

  • Sha Fu
  • David Hinks
  • Peter Hauser
  • Mary Ankeny
Original Paper


A potentially environmentally responsible dyeing procedure for ultra-deep shades on cotton was developed using a cationization method in combination with mercerization. The effects of both treatments on dyeing performance and colorfastness properties of cotton fabrics dyed with reactive dyes were analyzed individually and in combination. Both mercerization and cationization have been proved to be effective in increasing the depth of shade on cotton. The colorfastness properties, except colorfastness to wet crocking, of mercerized–cationized cotton fabrics dyed without salt were much better than untreated cotton dyed using a conventional dyeing procedure. Unlike untreated cotton fabrics, the concentration of Na2CO3 in the dyeing process of mercerized–cationized cotton fabrics was lowered from 20 to 5 g/L without compromising dye fixation and colorfastness properties. With low concentrations of dyes and Na2CO3 and no electrolyte in the dye bath effluent, the dyeing procedure of mercerized–cationized cotton fabrics for ultra-deep shades is potentially a more environmentally benign method than conventional dyeing with reactive dyes.


Cotton Dyeing Reactive dye Ultra-deep shades Cationization Mercerization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sha Fu
    • 1
  • David Hinks
    • 1
  • Peter Hauser
    • 1
  • Mary Ankeny
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and ScienceNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  2. 2.Cotton IncorporatedCaryUSA

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