, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 2887–2895 | Cite as

Titrimetric methods for the determination of surface and total charge of functionalized nanofibrillated/microfibrillated cellulose (NFC/MFC)

  • Karoliina JunkaEmail author
  • Ilari Filpponen
  • Tom Lindström
  • Janne Laine
Original Paper


Total and surface charge of three different carboxymethylated nanofibrillated/microfibrillated cellulose (NFC/MFC) samples were investigated by using titrimetric methods (conductometric and polyelectrolyte (PE) titrations). Conductometric titration was found to be suitable method for the NFC total charge measurements when the back titration with HCl was applied. Surface charge measurements of NFC/MFC were conducted by using both indirect and direct PE titrations. The direct PE titration was found to be a more suitable method for the surface charge determination of NFC/MFC whereas the indirect PE titration produced too high surface charge values. This is presumably due to kinetically locked polyelectrolyte conformations on the NFC/MFC surfaces or entrapment of residual polymer after adsorption onto the NFC/MFC gel network. Finally, NFC was propargyl-functionalized and the changes in surface and total charge were successfully monitored and compared to those of propargyl-functionalized pulp. A good correlation between the titrimetric methods and elemental analysis was observed.


Nanofibrillated cellulose Charge density Surface charge Total charge Propargyl-NFC 



This work was funded by Naseva2 project. Graduate School for Biomass Refining (BIOREGS) and Refining Lignocellulosics to Advanced Polymers and Fibers (PolyRefNorth) network are thanked for personal financial support (KJ). Ms. Gunborg Glad-Nordmark, Ms. Åsa Blademo, Ms. Ritva Kivelä, Ms. Anu Anttila, Ms. Marja Kärkkäinen and Ms. Johanna Mareta are thanked for laboratory assistance. KJ acknowledges fruitful discussions with Ali Naderi and Jonas Sundström (Innventia AB).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karoliina Junka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ilari Filpponen
    • 1
  • Tom Lindström
    • 2
  • Janne Laine
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Products TechnologyAalto University School of Chemical TechnologyAaltoFinland
  2. 2.Innventia ABStockholmSweden

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