, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 2451–2460 | Cite as

Effect of tempo and periodate-chlorite oxidized nanofibrils on ground calcium carbonate flocculation and retention in sheet forming and on the physical properties of sheets

  • Ari Ämmälä
  • Henrikki Liimatainen
  • Christine Burmeister
  • Jouko Niinimäki
Original Paper


Nanofibrils (NFC) or microfibrils (MFC) are potential candidates for high filler-loaded papers and board as they are able to compensate for strength loss caused by the filler itself. However, the interaction of nanofibrils and the filler during sheet forming is not yet well understood. The aim here was to examine 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) and periodate-chlorite oxidized (DCC) anionic nanofibrils during sheet forming in order to determine their effects on flocculation, filler retention and the strength and optical properties of the handsheets. The experiments were carried out by manufacturing filler-loaded sheets from refined kraft fibres and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) with various added levels of TEMPO and DCC nanofibrils. The results showed that both types of nanofibril caused pronounced agglomeration of the GCC filler, which increased its retention in the paper web. Given the same filler content, the strength properties were the same or slightly better than in a sheet formed without any chemical agent, while light scattering was slightly inferior. Poorer formation seemed to be the explanation for why the increased bonding induced by NFCs was not reflected in obviously better sheet strengths. The physical properties of sheets containing NFC were superior to those of sheets formed with cationic polyacrylamide as a retention aid with the same filler content and level of formation. Thus NFCs seem to be potential retention aids for use in fine paper production instead of traditional polymers.


Kraft cellulose fibre Filler Nanofibrillar cellulose Papermaking properties Fine paper 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ari Ämmälä
    • 1
  • Henrikki Liimatainen
    • 1
  • Christine Burmeister
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jouko Niinimäki
    • 1
  1. 1.Fibre and Particle Engineering LaboratoryUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  2. 2.Institute of Particle TechnologyTechnical University of BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

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