Polypyrrole (PPy) chemical synthesis with xylan in aqueous medium and production of highly conducting PPy/nanofibrillated cellulose films and coatings
Polypyrrole was chemically synthesised by using, for the first time, Birchwood xylan as additive, and ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as oxidant. The impact of additive concentration, polymerisation time and reagents concentration on PPy conductivity was studied. It was shown that, once fixed the pyrrole (Py)/APS and Py/xylan optimal ratios, the best conductivities (26 S/cm) were obtained for short polymerisation times (30 min) and increased reactants concentration. Morphological analysis of PPy particles, Py depletion kinetics and oxido-reduction potential measurements of the solutions provided interpretation elements on the impact of the polymerisation time on PPy pellet conductivity. Furthermore, optimised PPy particles obtained with xylan (PPyx) were mixed with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) in order to obtain freestanding films. Their electrical and handling performances were evaluated at increasing PPy weight fraction in the samples. The conductivity mechanism of the most conductive sample (in comparison with a low performing sample) was investigated by measuring the conductivity as a function of temperature (4–350 K) and two transport regimes were identified. Selected formulations were finally used to produce conducting PPy/NFC coatings on non-absorbent (glass) and absorbent (copy paper) substrates. The impact of NFC in the percolation of PPy particles, then in the coating conductivity, was investigated.
KeywordsPolypyrrole Xylan Nanofibrillated cellulose Conductivity Composite film
This work was supported by a CIFRE grant from the French “Association Nationale de la Recherche et de la Technologie”, CTP and CTPi members and by the National Research Agency through the Myosotis project (ANR-08-NANO-012-01).
- Demir I, Serhat Baspinar M, Orhan M (2005) Utilization of kraft pulp production residues in clay brick production. Build Environ 40(11):1533–1537Google Scholar
- Fuhrmann A, Krogerus B (2009) Xylan from bleached hardwood pulp-new opportunities. TAPPI engineering, pulping, environmental conference, Memphis, TN, United States, 11–14 OctGoogle Scholar
- Lowys M-P, Desbrières J, Rinaudo M (2001) Rheological characterization of cellulosic microfibril suspensions. Role of polymeric additives. Food Hydrocoll 15(1):25–32Google Scholar
- Mahmud H, Kassim A, Zainal Z, Mat Yunus WM (2005) Electrochemical formation of polypyrrole-carboxymethylcellulose conducting polymer composite films. J Mater Sci Technol 21(5):661–665Google Scholar
- Mott NF, Davis EA (1971) Electronic processes in non-crystalline materials. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Nalwa HS (1997) Handbook of organic conductive molecules and polymers (chapter 2), vol 4. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pääkkö M, Ankerfors M, Kosonen H, Nykänen A, Ahola S, Österberg M, Ruokolainen J, Laine J, Larsson PT, Ikkala O, Lindström T (2007) Enzymatic hydrolysis combined with mechanical shearing and high pressure homogeneization for nanoscale cellulose fibrils and strong gels. Biomacromol 8(6):1934–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polprasert C (2007) Organic waste recycling: technology and management. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Sasso C, Fenoll M, Stephan O, Beneventi D (2008) Use of wood derivatives as doping/dispersing agents in the preparation of polypyrrole aqueous dispersions. Bioresources 3(4):1187–1195Google Scholar
- Shklovskii BI, Efros AL (1984) Electronic properties of doped semiconductors. Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
- Sixta H (2011) Progress and challenges in the selective isolation of xylan from hardwood. 241st ACS National Meeting & Exposition, Anaheim, CA, United States, 27–31 MarchGoogle Scholar
- Yang R, Xu S, Wang Z, Yang W (2005) Aqueous extraction of corncob xylan and production of xylooligosaccharides. Food Sci Tech 38(6):677–682Google Scholar