Dopant effect and characterization of polypyrrole-cellulose composites prepared by in situ polymerization process
Polypyrrole (PPy)-cellulose composites were prepared by in situ polymerization of pyrrole in pulp suspension using ferric chloride as an oxidant. Some sulfonic compounds including p-toluenesulfonic acid and its sodium salt (PTSA and PTSA-Na), benzenesulfonic acid (BSA), dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and its sodium salt (DBSA and DBSA-Na), 2-naphthalene sulfonic acid (NSA) and 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid sodium salt (AQSA-Na) were used as dopants, and their effect on the conductivity of PPy-cellulose composite was investigated. The results showed that the species and dose of dopants had significant effect on the surface resistivity and environmental stability of PPy-cellulose composite. As the dopant, PTSA and DBSA had a superior doping effect compared to their sodium salts. The doping result of BSA was close to that of PTSA. NSA bearing a naphthalene ring and AQSA-Na bearing an anthraquinone ring gave the best conductivity. Using NSA or AQSA-Na as a dopant, along with suitable polymerization conditions, the PPy-cellulose composite obtained showed a surface resistivity as low as 20 Ω cm−2. For most dopants, the lowest surface resistivity could be obtained when the molar ratio of dopant to pyrrole was 1:1. Both ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis confirmed that the PPy on pulp fibers doped with PTSA, PTSA-Na, NSA and AQSA-Na had different doping levels. The higher doping level of the PPy in the composites doped with NAS and AQSA-Na might be related to the stronger interaction of cellulose with PPy chains. Both SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy) observation revealed the fine grain microstructure of the PPy on the composites with average grain sizes in the range of 100–200 nm, and the PPy on the samples doped with NSA and AQSA-Na exhibited quite different morphology as compared to those doped with PTSA and its sodium salt.
KeywordsSulfonic dopants Polypyrrole-cellulose composites Conductivity
Authors would like to present grateful acknowledgments to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 30771693) and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry for supports.
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