Surface-sensitive method to determine calcium carbonate filler contents in cellulose matrices
- 189 Downloads
This paper describes a method using attenuated total reflectance infra-red spectroscopy to determine the surface concentration of calcium carbonate in paper samples, by applying the linear relationship between the relative infra-red absorption integrals and the concentration. The method was able to detect micro-variations in the surface concentration and could also distinguish between different sheets as well as between the top and bottom side of one sheet. The samples were also split and the calcium carbonate concentration was determined within and compared to bulk calcium carbonate concentration determined from ash testing. The surface results were also compared with analysed scanning electron microscopy images generated from back-scattering electrons. The comparison shows that both sets of results are in excellent agreement. Depending on the sample, large errors (95% confidence) were observed. These, however, are caused by micro-variations of the surface concentration, rather than by inaccuracies of the technique, which is estimated to be less than 1%. Furthermore, measurements of various sample orientations suggest that anisotropic polarisation effects can be neglected. The method can be applied to paper and cellulose matrices having calcium carbonate filler contents of less than 50%. Due to spectral overlaps it is not suitable to determine kaolin filler contents.
KeywordsAttenuated total reflection Surface Scanning electron microscope Cellulose Calcium carbonate Quantification
The authors would like to thank the CRC SmartPrint for funding the work, as well as Finley Shanks for providing the ATR-FTIR and John Ward and Mark Greaves for assisting in getting the BSE images with the desired quality.
- Fabritius T, Saarela J, Myllyla R (2006) Determination of the refractive index of paper with clearing agents. In: Proceedings of SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering 6053:60530X. doi: 10.1117/12.660416
- Hoc M (2000) The phenomenon of linting in newsprint printing–IFRA Special Report Materials 1.19. IFRA, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
- Jayme G, Rohmann EM (1965) Infrared studies of coated paper. I. Application of the attenuated total reflectance technique to the system kaolin-casein. Papier Darmstadt 19(9):497–502Google Scholar
- Mangin PJ, Silvy J (1997) Fundamental studies of linting: understanding ink-press-paper interactions non-linearity. In: TAGA proceedings. Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, pp 884–905Google Scholar
- Modgi S, McQuaid ME, Englezos P (2006) A technique for Z-direction mineral topography in paper SEM/EDX analysis. Nordic Pulp Pap Res J 21(5):132–137Google Scholar
- Rand SF (2004) Linting of filler in the offset printing process. Dissertation, Monash UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Smith JK, Yuan M, Lopez TH, Means M, Przybylinski JL (2004) Real-time and in situ detection of calcium carbonate scale in a west Texas oil field. Spe Prod Facil 19(2):94–99Google Scholar
- Sudarno A, Batchelor W, Banham P, Gujjari C (2007) Investigation of the effect of press and paper variables on linting during the offset printing of newsprint. TAPPI J. 6(9):25–31Google Scholar
- Williams GJ, Drummond JG (2000) Preparation of large sections for the microscopical study of paper structure. J Pulp Pap Sci 26(5):188–193Google Scholar