Advertisement

Cellulose

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 217–223 | Cite as

Electroactive-paper actuator made with cellulose/NaOH/urea and sodium alginate

  • Jaehwan Kim
  • Niangui Wang
  • Yi Chen
  • Sun-Kon Lee
  • Gyu-Young Yun
Article

Abstract

In an earlier work we reported the discovery of cellulose as a smart material that can be used in sensors and actuators. While the cellulose-based Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) actuator has many merits – lightweight, dry condition, biodegradability, sustainability, large displacement output and low actuation voltage – its performance is sensitive to humidity. We report here on an EAPap made with a cellulose and sodium alginate that produces its maximum displacement at a lower humidity level than the earlier one. To fabricate this EAPap, we dissolved cellulose fibers into a aqueous solution of NaOH/urea. Sodium alginate (0, 5 or 10% by weight) was then added to this cellulose solution. The solution was cast into a sheet and hydrolyzed to form a wet cellulose-sodium alginate blend film. After drying, a bending EAPap actuator was made by depositing thin gold electrodes on both sides of it. The performance of the EAPap actuator was then evaluated in terms of free displacement and blocked force with respect to the actuation frequency, activation voltage and content of sodium alginate. The actuation principle is also discussed.

Keywords

Aqueous solvent Cellulose Electro-Active Papers (EAPap) Sodium alginate 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by Creative Research Initiatives (EAPap Actuator) of MOST/KOSEF.

References

  1. Bazhenov VA (1961) Piezoelectric properties of woods. Consultants Bureau, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen Y, Zhang L, Gu J, Liu J (2004) Physical properties of microporous membranes prepared by hydrolyzing cellulose/soy protein blends. J Membr Sci 241:393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fukada E (2000) History and recent progress in piezoelectric polymers. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 47:1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gindl W, Konnerth J, Schoberl T (2006) Nanoindentation of regenerated cellulose fibres. Cellulose 13:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Klemm D, Heublein B, Fink HP, Bohn A (2005) Cellulose: fascinating biopolymer and sustainable raw material. Angew Chem Int Ed 44:2–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kondo T, Togawa E, Brown Jr RM (2001) Nematic ordered cellulose: a concept of glucan chain association. Biomacromolecules 2:1324–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kim J, Seo YB (2002) Electro-active paper actuators. Smart Mater Struct 11:355–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kim J, Song CS, Yun SR (2006a) Cellulose based electro-active papers: performance and environmental effects. Smart Mater Struct 15:719–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kim J, Yun S, Ounaies Z (2006b) Discovery of cellulose as a smart material. Macromolecules 39:4202–4206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Osawa T, Matsubara Y, Muramatsu T, Kimura M, Kakuta Y (2005) Crystal structure of the alginate (poly α-L-guluronate) lyase from Corynebacterium sp. at 1.2 Å resolution. J Mol Biol 345:1111–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shahinpoor M (2003) Ionic polymer-conductor composites as biomimetic sensors, robotic actuators and artificial muscles – a review. Electrochim Acta 48:2343–2353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wong TY, Preston LA, Schiller NL (2000) Alginate lyase: review of major sources and enzyme characteristics, structure–function analysis, biological roles, and applications. Annu Rev Microbiol 54:289–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Yan H, Tomizawa K, Ohino H, Toshima N (2003) All-solid actuator consisting of polyaniline film and solid polymer electrolyte. Macromol Mater Eng 288:578–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Zhang L, Ruan D, Gao S (2002) Dissolution and regeneration of cellulose in NaOH/Thiourea aqueous solution. J Polym Sci Polym Phys 40:1521–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zhou D, Zhang L, Zhou J, Guo S (2004) Cellulose/chitin beads for adsorption of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Water Res 38:2643–2650CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaehwan Kim
    • 1
  • Niangui Wang
    • 1
  • Yi Chen
    • 1
  • Sun-Kon Lee
    • 1
  • Gyu-Young Yun
    • 1
  1. 1.Creative Research Center for EAPap Actuator, Mechanical Engineering DepartmentInha UniversityIncheonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations